Introduction. 1 The kidney: structural overview. 2 The kidney: functional overview. 3 Development of the renal system. 4 Clinical features of kidney disease. 5 The kidney: laboratory investigations and diagnostic imaging. Basic renal science. 6 Renal sodium handling. 7 Renal potassium handling. 8 Renal acid-base and buffer concepts. 9 Renal acid-base handling. 10 Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium metabolism. 11 The kidney and water handling. 12 Erythropoietin and anemia in renal disease. 13 Renal vascular biology. 14 Drug and organic molecule handling by the kidney. 15 Renal pharmacology: diuretics. Disorders of renal metabolic function. 16 Hereditary disorders of tubular transport. 17 Regulation of body sodium and body water. 18 Disorders of sodium and water metabolism. 19 Hyponatremia and hypernatremia. 20 The edema states: sodium and water retention. 21 Regulation of potassium metabolism. 22 Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. 23 Regulation of divalent ions and disorders of phosphate and magnesium. 24 Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia. 25 Acid-base regulation and responses to acid-base. Disturbances. 26 Clinical disorders of acid-base metabolism and metabolic acidosis. 27 Metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, and respiratory alkalosis. 28 Renal tubular acidosis. Renal disease processes. 29 Glomerular disease: an overview. 30 Glomerular pathologies and their associated diseases. 31 Specific diseases affecting the glomeruli. 32 Tubulointerstitial disease. 33 Proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome. 34 Hypertension: causes and clinical evaluation. 35 Hypertension: complications and therapy. 36 Diabetes mellitus and the kidney. 37 Renal vascular disease. 38 Polycystic kidney disease. 39 Acute kidney injury: pathophysiology. 40 Acute kidney injury: clinical aspects. 41 Chronic kidney disease and kidney function in the elderly. 42 Severe chronic kidney disease and renal bone disease. 43 Severe chronic kidney disease: clinical complications and their management. 44 Treatment of kidney failure with dialysis. 45 Peritoneal dialysis and continuous hemofiltration. 46 Renal transplantation. 47 Urinary tract infection. 48 Renal tract stones. 49 Renal tract cancer. 50 Pregnancy and the renal system. Self-assessment. Self-assessment: case studies and questions. Self-assessment: answers. Appendix: normal values.