Acknowledgements; Preface; Foreword Oliver Sacks; Author affiliations; Abbreviations; 1. The paradoxical nature of nature Narinder Kapur, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Tom Manly and Jonathan Cole; 2. Paradoxical effects of sensory loss Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Souzana Obretenova and Lotfi B. Merabet; 3. Paradoxical functional facilitation and recovery in neurological and psychiatric conditions Narinder Kapur; 4. Paradoxes in neurorehabilitation Tom Manly, Ian H. Robertson and Narinder Kapur; 5. The paradoxical self Vilayanur Ramachandran and William Hirstein; 6. Paradoxical psychological functioning in early child development David J. Lewkowicz and Asif A. Ghazanfar; 7. Cognitive ageing: a positive perspective Shira Zimerman, Lynn Hasher and David Goldstein; 8. Paradoxes of learning and memory Henry L. Roediger, III and Andrew C. Butler; 9. The paradox of human expertise: why experts get it wrong Itiel E. Dror; 10. Paradoxes in Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders Ashwani Jha and Peter Brown; 11. Paradoxical phenomena in epilepsy Steven C. Schachter; 12. Paradoxical creativity and adjustment in neurological conditions Indre V. Viskontas and Bruce L. Miller; 13. Paradoxical functional facilitation with noninvasive brain stimulation Umer Najib and Alvaro Pascual-Leone; 14. Unexpected benefits of allergies and cigarette smoking: two examples of paradox in neuroepidemiology Judith Schwartzbaum, Linda Karavodin, Narinder Kapur and James L. Fisher; 15. The paradox of autism: why does disability sometimes give rise to talent? Simon Baron-Cohen, Emma Ashwin, Chris Ashwin, Teresa Tavassoli and Bhismadev Chakrabarti; 16. Paradoxes in creativity and psychiatric conditions Jonathan Hurlow and James H. MacCabe; 17. The paradox of psychosurgery to treat mental disorders Perminder S. Sachdev; 18. The paradox of electroconvulsive therapy Angela Merkl and Malek Bajbouj; 19. Paradoxes of comparative cognition Howard C. Hughes; 20. Paradoxical phenomena in brain plasticity Bryan Kolb and G. Campbell Teskey; 21. Immature neurons in the adult brain. Breaking all the rules J. Martin Wojtowicz; 22. The paradoxical hippocampus: when forgetting helps learning Howard Eichenbaum; 23. Paradoxical effects of drugs on cognitive function: the neuropsychopharmacology of the dopamine and other neurotransmitter systems Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts and Mitul A. Mehta; 24. The paradoxical brain - so what? Narinder Kapur, Tom Manly, Jonathan Cole and Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Index.