Introduction 1 History of research on the aging male - selected aspects 1 Micheal Oettel, Sergio Musitelli and Dirk Schultheiss Section I: Biology of Aging. 1. The biology of gender differences in animal models of aging. 2. The biologic basis for longevity differences between men and women. 3. The biology of the aging brain. 4. The blood-brain barrier: age and gender differences. Section II: Diagnostics and Primary Assessment. 5. Aging men - The challenge ahead. 6. Screening of the aging male. 7. Laboratory tests in the endocrine evaluation of aging males. Section III: The Genitourinary System. 8. Genitourinary system: an introduction. 9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. 10. Prostate cancer. 11. Erectile dysfunction in the aging male. 12. Infertility in the aging male. 13. Urinary incontinence. 14. Testicular cancer. Section IV: Sexual Dysfunction. 15. Treatment of erectile dysfunction in the elderly. 16. Assessment of the aging man with sexual dysfunction. Section V: Endocrine System. 17. Endocrinology of the aging male: an overview. 18. Androgen deficiency and its management in elderly men. 19. Growth hormone and aging in men. 20. The thyroid. Section VI: Aging and Body Composition. 21. Aging testosterone, and body composition. 22. Growth hormone and body composition in the aging male. 23. Androgens and lean body mass in the aging male. 24. Visceral obesity, androgens and the risks of cardiovascular disease. Section VII: Nutrition, Digestion and Metabolism. 25. Nutrition in older men. 26. Obesity in middle-aged men. 27. Diabetes in the elderly male: nutritional aspects. 28. Lipids through the ages. 29. Insulin resistance syndrome in older people. 30. Free radicals and vitamins. 31. Resistance exercise. 32. Constipation and diarrhea. 33. Macrovascular complications in the elderly diabetic. 34. Upper gastrointestinal complaints. Section VIII: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems. 35. Atherosclerotic risk assessment of androgen therapy in aging men. 36. Male aging: changes in metabolic, inflammatory, and endothelial indices of cardiovascular risk. 37. Androgens: studies in animal models of atherosclerosis. 38. Androgens and blood pressure in men. 39. Androgens and arterial disease. 40. Androgenic influences on ventilation and ventilatory responses to oxygen and carbon dioxide during wakefulness and sleep. 41. The role of androgens in respiratory function. Section IX: Central Nervous System and Psyche. 42. Changes in libido/sex life. 43. Depression. 44. Testosterone, depression and cognitive function. 45. Modern antidepressants. 46. Sleep disorders. 47. Cognitive changes in aging. Section X: Skeletal System. 48. Bone loss and osteoporotic fracture occurrence in aging men. Section XI: Sensory Organs. 49. Aging and the eye. 50. Aging and inner ear dysfunction. 51. Smell and taste. Section XII: Skin and Hair. 52. Healthy skin aging. 53. Skin disease caused by changes in the immune system and infection. 54. Skin changes caused by venous diseases. 55. Aging of hair. 56. Hormone treatment and preventative strategies in aging men: whom to treat, when to treat and how to treat.