Care of People with Diabetes - Trisha Dunning | Consegna Gratis
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Care of People with Diabetes

Care of People with Diabetes
titolo Care of People with Diabetes
sottotitolo A Manual of Nursing Practice
Editore Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley & Sons Ltd)
Formato Libro
Pagine 608
Pubblicazione 2013
ISBN 9780470659199
18app Carta del docente Acquistabile con bonus 18app o Carta del docente
46,00 43,70 (-5%)
Spese di spedizione gratis
Care of People with Diabetes is an essential guide to the care and management of people with diabetes mellitus, with particular emphasis on the acute care setting. Written by an experienced clinical nurse specialist with extensive knowledge of evidence-based diabetes care, this fully updated fourth edition serves as an essential companion to clinical practice for nurses and health care professionals. People with diabetes experience a high symptom and self-care burden associated with managing their condition, and require appropriate support, advice and regular monitoring. Similarly, health professionals need to maintain and keep up-to-date with an ever-increasing body of knowledge in order to help people with diabetes incorporate new research into their self-care. Care of People with Diabetes provides an extensive overview of the knowledge base all health professionals require to work effectively with people with diabetes. Special features: Comprehensive clinical manual on an ever-more prevalent condition, written to meet the needs of nurses and healthcare professionals Includes new material on evaluating education programmes, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, diabetes and sleep apnoea, and end-of-life care Provides key evidence for best practice Includes protocols for consistent care and improving patient outcomes

Indice testuale

Foreword xv Preface xvi Acknowledgements xviii List of Abbreviations and Symbols xix 1 Diagnosing and Classifying Diabetes 1 Key points 1 What is diabetes mellitus? 2 Prevalence of diabetes 2 Classification of diabetes 3 Overview of normal glucose homeostasis 4 The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents 7 Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes 8 Type 2 diabetes in Indigenous children and adolescents 15 Gestational diabetes 15 Example Information Sheet: Preparation for an oral glucose tolerance test 20 Screening for diabetes 21 Preventing Type 2 diabetes 22 Preventing Type 1 diabetes 25 Managing diabetes mellitus 25 Key points 25 Aims of management 27 Exercise/activity 29 Diabetes education 32 Complications of diabetes 33 Aim and objectives of nursing care of people with diabetes 34 Technology and diabetes management 36 A sobering final comment 38 References 38 2 Holistic Assessment, Nursing Diagnosis, and Documentation 44 Key points 44 Rationale 44 Holistic nursing 45 Care models 45 Characteristics of an holistic nursing history 47 Nursing history 49 Example Health Assessment Chart 50 Instruments to measure health status 54 Documenting and charting patient care 54 Care plans 55 Nursing responsibilities 56 Documentation by people with diabetes 57 References 58 3 Monitoring Diabetes Mellitus 60 Key points 60 Rationale 60 Introduction 61 Monitoring 1: Blood glucose 61 Key points 61 Blood glucose testing checklist 71 Monitoring 2: Urine glucose 73 Key points 73 Monitoring 3: Additional assessment 76 Self-care 80 The annual review 81 References 81 4 Nutrition, Obesity and Exercise 84 Key points 84 Rationale 84 The importance of good nutrition 85 Obesity 85 Overview of the pathogenesis of obesity 86 The significance of abdominal obesity 87 Nutrition, obesity and stress 88 Methods of measuring weight 88 Managing obesity and diabetes 90 Malnutrition and under-nutrition 90 Method of screening for dietary characteristics and problems 93 Principles of dietary management for people with diabetes 94 Goals of Dietary Management 97 Dietary management: obesity 98 Bariatric surgery 99 Complementary weight loss programmes 101 Factors associated with making dietary changes 101 Nursing responsibilities 102 References 107 5 Medicines Management 111 Key points 111 Introduction 112 Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) 112 Quality Use of Medicines and Diabetes 113 Oral Glucose-Lowering Medicines (GLM) 114 The incretin hormones 124 New medicines for type 2 diabetes 125 Medicine interactions 126 When should insulin be initiated in Type 2 diabetes? 128 Barriers to insulin therapy 132 Some strategies to overcome the barriers 132 Insulin therapy 133 Types of insulin available 134 Injection sites and administration 137 Mixing short- and intermediate-acting insulins 138 Commonly used insulin regimens 139 Interpreting morning hyperglycaemia 140 Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) 141 Continuous blood glucose sensors 142 Subcutaneous insulin sliding scales and top-up regimes 143 Uses of insulin infusions 145 Insulin allergy 147 Transplants 148 Stabilising diabetes 148 Stabilising diabetes in hospital 149 Community and outpatient stabilisation 150 Lipid-lowering agents 152 Monitoring lipid medicines 157 Antihypertensive agents 157 Antiplatelet agents 160 Medication safety, adherence and medication self-management 161 Enhancing medication self-care 163 Example protocol for outpatient stabilisation onto insulin 166 References 167 6 Hypoglycaemia 174 Key points 174 Rationale 174 Introduction 175 The counter-regulatory response 176 Definition of hypoglycaemia 178 Recognising hypoglycaemia 180 Counter-regulatory hormonal response to hypoglycaemia 181 Causes of hypoglycaemia 181 Preventing and managing hypoglycaemia 182 Hypoglycaemic unawareness 183 Prevalence of hypoglycaemic unawareness 183 Nocturnal hypoglycaemia 184 Relative hypoglycaemia 187 Medicine interactions 187 Objectives of care 188 Treatment 188 Prolonged hypoglycaemia 189 Patients most at risk of hypoglycaemia 190 Psychological effects of hypoglycaemia 191 Consequences of hypoglycaemia 192 Guidelines for administering glucagon 193 Adverse reactions 194 References 194 7 Hyperglycaemia, Acute Illness, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic States (HHS), and Lactic Acidosis 198 Key points 198 Rationale 199 Prevention: proactively managing intercurrent illness 199 Self-care during illness 201 Hyperglycaemia 201 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) 203 Brittle diabetes and hyperglycaemia 210 Euglycaemic DKA 210 Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic States 211 Presenting signs and symptoms 212 Lactic acidosis 213 Lactic acidosis associated with Metformin 215 References 216 8 Long-Term Complications of Diabetes 218 Key points 218 Introduction 219 Pathophysiology of diabetes complications 219 Cardiovascular disease and diabetes 221 Key points 221 Rationale 222 Medicines and cardiovascular disease 223 Complementary medicines (CAM) 226 Other management considerations 227 Mental health and cardiovascular disease 228 Nursing responsibilities 229 Telephone coaching 233 Cerebrovascular disease 233 Signs and symptoms 234 Diabetes and eye disease 235 Key points 235 Rationale 235 Introduction 235 Risk factors for retinopathy 236 Diabetes and renal disease 241 Key points 241 Introduction 241 Stages of chronic kidney disease 241 Risk factors for renal disease 242 Renal failure 243 Renal disease and anaemia 245 Diet and renal disease 245 Renal disease and older people 247 Kidney biopsy 247 Renal dialysis 247 Objectives of care 249 Nursing responsibilities 250 Commencing CAPD in patients on insulin 250 Educating the patient about CAPD 251 Supportive care 252 Renal disease and herbal medicine (see also Chapter 19) 252 Peripheral and autonomic neuropathy 253 Key points 253 Introduction 253 Vascular changes 254 Infection 255 Diabetes-related peripheral neuropathy 257 Other pain management strategies 258 Stages of peripheral neuropathy 259 Risk factors for developing foot problems 259 Objectives of care 260 Nursing responsibilities 260 Classification of foot ulcers 262 Wound management 262 Wound management techniques under study 264 Rehabilitation 264 Autonomic neuropathy 265 Key points 265 Introduction 265 Diagnosis and management 267 Nursing care 268 References 269 9 Management During Surgical and Investigative Procedures 277 Surgical procedures 277 Key points 277 Rationale 277 Introduction 278 Children with diabetes undergoing surgical procedures 279 Older people with diabetes and surgical procedures 280 Aims of management 280 Preoperative nursing care 281 Major procedures 284 Postoperative nursing responsibilities 286 Minor procedures 287 Insulin pump therapy in patients undergoing surgery 288 Emergency procedures 289 Bariatric surgery 290 Investigative procedures 290 Key points 290 Rationale 290 The objectives of care 291 General nursing management 291 Eye procedures 292 Complementary therapies and surgery and investigative procedures 295 Preoperative phase 295 Postoperative phase 296 Implications for nursing care 297 References 297 Example Instruction Sheet 2(a): Instructions for people with diabetes on oral glucose-lowering medicines having procedures as outpatients under sedation of general anaesthesia 298 Example Instruction Sheet 2(b): Instructions for people with diabetes on insulin having procedures as outpatients under sedation or general anaesthesia 299 10 Conditions Associated with Diabetes 300 Key points 300 Introduction 300 Enteral and parenteral nutrition 301 Aims of therapy 301 Routes of administration 302 Choice of formula 304 Nursing responsibilities 304 Diabetes and cancer 306 Management 307 Objectives of care 308 Nursing responsibilities 309 Managing corticosteroids in people with cancer 310 Complementary therapies and cancer 311 Smoking, alcohol, and illegal drug use 312 Smoking 312 Nicotine addiction 314 Assisting the person to stop smoking 315 Medicines to support smoking cessation 317 Alcohol addiction 317 Illegal drug use 319 Effects on diabetes 321 Interactions with medicines 322 Management issues 322 Brittle diabetes 323 Introduction 323 Causes of brittle diabetes 324 Management 324 Oral health and diabetes 325 Introduction 325 Causal mechanisms 326 Management 326 Diabetes and liver disease 327 Introduction 327 Managing people with diabetes and liver disease 328 CAM medicines 329 Haemochromatosis 329 Iron overload 330 Management 330 Diabetic mastopathy 330 Diagnosis 330 Management 331 Diabetes and coeliac disease 331 Signs and symptoms 332 Diagnosis 332 Management 333 Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes 333 Diagnosis 334 Signs and symptoms 335 Management 335 Sleep disturbance and diabetes 335 Diagnosis

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