Preface; 1. Introduction: historical perspective of pediatric Multiple Sclerosis and related disorders Deborah Hertz, Anita L. Belman and Folker Hanefeld; 2. Controversies around the current operational definitions of pediatric MS, ADEM and related diseases Dorothee Chabas, Lauren B. Krupp and Marc Tardieu; Part I. Pediatric MS Diagnosis: 3. Epidemiology of pediatric MS: incidence, prevalence and susceptibility risk factors Martino Ruggieri, Immacolata Plasmati and Isabella Simone; 4. Clinical presentation of Multiple Sclerosis in children Angelo Ghezzi and Brenda Banwell; 5. Conventional MRI features of pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Bruno P. Soares, Dorothee Chabas and Max Wintermark; 6. Differential diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and acquired central nervous system demyelinating disorders in children and adolescents Nancy L. Kuntz and Jonathan Strober; Part II. Pediatric MS Course and Treatment: 7. Pediatric MS course (including predictive factors) Christel Renoux and Emmanuelle L. Waubant; 8. Plasma exchange and IV immunoglobulin for acute demyelinating relapses Khurram Bashir; 9. Corticosteroids in pediatric Multiple Sclerosis relapses Gregory S. Aaen; 10. Disease modifying therapy and response to first-line treatment in pediatric multiple sclerosis E. Ann Yeh and Moses Rodriguez; 11. Treatment of breakthrough disease Daniela Pohl and Emmanuelle L. Waubant; 12. Symptomatic therapy in pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Sunita Venkateswaran, Susan Bennet and Jayne Ness; 13. Cognitive dysfunction in pediatric onset Multiple Sclerosis Laura J. Julian, Maria Trojano, Maria Pia Amato and Lauren B. Krupp; 14. Living with pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: patient well-being Sunny Im-Wang, Maria Milazzo and Ellen M. Mowry; Part III. Pediatric MS Biology: 15. Pediatric MS: biological presentation and research update Tanuja Chitnis and Amit Bar-Or; 16. Genetics of pediatric Multiple Sclerosis A. D. Sadovnick and R. Q. Hintzen; Part IV. ADEM: 17. Clinical and biological features of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Jin S. Hahn and Silvia Tenembaum; 18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Russell C. Dale and Esther Tantsis; 19. Treatment and prognosis of ADEM Marc Tardieu and Amy T. Waldman; Part V. Optic Neuritis in Children: 20. Pediatric optic neuritis Amy T. Waldman and Laura J. Balcer; 21. Recurrent isolated optic neuritis in the pediatric population Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Grant T. Liu; Part VI. Acute Complete Transverse Myelitis in Children: 22. What is acute transverse myelitis (ATM) in children? Frank S. Pidcock and Guillaume Sebire; Part VII. Neuromyelitis in Children: 23. Neuromyelitis optica in children Andrew McKeon and Timothy Lotze; Index.