Although multiple sclerosis and other disorders of myelin formation and repair are most commonly associated with adults, they can also occur in infants, children and adolescents. Up to 5 percent of those with MS experience symptoms before the age of 18, and the number of cases diagnosed is rising. There is a lack of awareness about these diseases in childhood, however, even amongst pediatric neurologists and MS specialists. Demyelinating Disorders of the Central Nervous System in Childhood provides comprehensive coverage of these diseases, highlighting throughout the differences between management in childhood and in adults. With sections dedicated to the diagnosis, course, treatment and biology of pediatric MS, detailed chapters on other childhood demyelinating diseases, including acute disseminated encephomyelitis, optic neuritis, acute complete transverse myelitis and neuromyelitis optica, are also provided. Essential reading for pediatric neurologists and MS specialists, this book will also be valuable reading for adult neurologists and pediatricians.
Preface; 1. Introduction: historical perspective of pediatric Multiple Sclerosis and related disorders Deborah Hertz, Anita L. Belman and Folker Hanefeld; 2. Controversies around the current operational definitions of pediatric MS, ADEM and related diseases Dorothee Chabas, Lauren B. Krupp and Marc Tardieu; Part I. Pediatric MS Diagnosis: 3. Epidemiology of pediatric MS: incidence, prevalence and susceptibility risk factors Martino Ruggieri, Immacolata Plasmati and Isabella Simone; 4. Clinical presentation of Multiple Sclerosis in children Angelo Ghezzi and Brenda Banwell; 5. Conventional MRI features of pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Bruno P. Soares, Dorothee Chabas and Max Wintermark; 6. Differential diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and acquired central nervous system demyelinating disorders in children and adolescents Nancy L. Kuntz and Jonathan Strober; Part II. Pediatric MS Course and Treatment: 7. Pediatric MS course (including predictive factors) Christel Renoux and Emmanuelle L. Waubant; 8. Plasma exchange and IV immunoglobulin for acute demyelinating relapses Khurram Bashir; 9. Corticosteroids in pediatric Multiple Sclerosis relapses Gregory S. Aaen; 10. Disease modifying therapy and response to first-line treatment in pediatric multiple sclerosis E. Ann Yeh and Moses Rodriguez; 11. Treatment of breakthrough disease Daniela Pohl and Emmanuelle L. Waubant; 12. Symptomatic therapy in pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Sunita Venkateswaran, Susan Bennet and Jayne Ness; 13. Cognitive dysfunction in pediatric onset Multiple Sclerosis Laura J. Julian, Maria Trojano, Maria Pia Amato and Lauren B. Krupp; 14. Living with pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: patient well-being Sunny Im-Wang, Maria Milazzo and Ellen M. Mowry; Part III. Pediatric MS Biology: 15. Pediatric MS: biological presentation and research update Tanuja Chitnis and Amit Bar-Or; 16. Genetics of pediatric Multiple Sclerosis A. D. Sadovnick and R. Q. Hintzen; Part IV. ADEM: 17. Clinical and biological features of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Jin S. Hahn and Silvia Tenembaum; 18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Russell C. Dale and Esther Tantsis; 19. Treatment and prognosis of ADEM Marc Tardieu and Amy T. Waldman; Part V. Optic Neuritis in Children: 20. Pediatric optic neuritis Amy T. Waldman and Laura J. Balcer; 21. Recurrent isolated optic neuritis in the pediatric population Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Grant T. Liu; Part VI. Acute Complete Transverse Myelitis in Children: 22. What is acute transverse myelitis (ATM) in children? Frank S. Pidcock and Guillaume Sebire; Part VII. Neuromyelitis in Children: 23. Neuromyelitis optica in children Andrew McKeon and Timothy Lotze; Index.