In The Vestibular System: A Sixth Sense, leading experts present an integrative, comprehensive and innovative look at the sense that Aristotle missed. The vestibular system plays a vital role in everyday life, contributing to a surprising range of functions from reflexes to the highest levels of perception and consciousness. This text not only offers a thorough and fresh review of the basicssensory transduction, the neurophysiology of peripheral and central pathwaysand how vestibular signals are processed in the control of gaze and posture; it significantly moves the discussion forward with its attention to the current research and the field's revolutionary advances, such as the understanding of neural correlates of self-motion and the basis of clinical disorders. In addition, the objective presentation of existing controversies is exciting reading and an extremely important contribution to the text's completeness. Dynamic, intellectually challenging, and unique in its level of integration of the material, this book is essential for anyone interested in understanding the vestibular system.
I. Introduction ; Chapter 1- The Vestibular System in Everyday Life ; 1.1 Overview of the vestibular system ; 1.2 Visual acuity and the vestibulo-ocular reflex ; 1.3 Air-righting reflex in the cat ; 1.4 Post-rotational reactions ; 1.5 Positional alcohol nystagmus (PAN) ; 1.6 Motion sickness ; 1.7 Vection illusions ; 1.8 The subjective visual vertical ; 1.9 Adaptive plasticity ; 1.10 Path finding and spatial orientation ; 1.11 Postural control ; 1.12 Summary ; 1.13 Selected readings ; II. Peripheral Vestibular System ; Chapter 2 - Structure of the Vestibular Labyrinth ; 2.1 Gross and microscopic anatomy ; 2.2 Fine structure of the sensory regions ; Hair cells ; Supporting cells ; Transitional regions ; 2.3 Regional variations in cellular architecture and afferent innervation ; Cristae ampullares ; Utricular macula ; Saccular macula ; 2.4 Efferent innervation ; 2.5 Summary ; 2.6 Selected readings ; Chapter 3- Hair Cell Transduction ; 3.1 Mechanoelectric transduction ; 3.2 Basolateral currents ; 3.3 Neurotransmitter release and presynaptic calcium ; channels ; Calcium channels ; Neurotransmitter release. ; 3.4 Postsynaptic mechanisms ; 3.5 Synaptic transmission involving type I hair cells ; 3.6 Spike encoding ; 3.7 Efferent neurotransmission ; 3.8 Summary ; 3.9 Selected readings ; Chapter 4- Physiology of the Vestibular Organs ; 4.1 General features of the vestibular organs ; Vestibular organs are inertial sensors ; Resting discharge ; Discharge regularity ; Information transmission ; 4.2 Semicircular canals ; Directional properties ; Macromechanics and the torsion-pendulum model ; Interspecies variations and canal dimensions ; Afferent response dynamics ; Variations in gain and phase ; Afferent morphology and physiology ; Dynamic range of afferent discharge ; 4.3 Otolith organs ; Directional properties ; Macromechanics and the otoconial membrane ; Afferent response dynamics ; Dynamic range of afferent discharge ; Variations in gain and phase ; Afferent morphology and physiology ; 4.4 Summary ; 4.5 Selected readings ; Chapter 5- The Efferent Vestibular System ; 5.1 Comparative anatomy of central efferent pathways ; 5.2 Responses of afferents to electrical stimulation of ; EVS ; Mammals. ; Non-mammals ; 5.3 Responses of efferents to natural stimulation ; 5.4 Efferent-mediated responses of afferents ; 5.5 Possible functions of efferents in mammals ; 5.6 Summary ; III. Central Vestibular System ; Chapter 6 - Neuroanatomy of Central Vestibular Pathways ; 6.1 Introduction ; 6.2 The vestibular nuclei: subdivisions and anatomical ; organization ; Medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) ; Lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) ; Superior vestibular nucleus (SVN) ; Descending vestibular nucleus (DVN) ; y group ; Interstitial nucleus of the vestibular nerve (INT8) ; Associated cell groups (z, x, f, l,m) ; Projection and intrinsic neurons ; Connections with the ipsilateral vestibular nerve ; Commissural pathways ; 6.3 Vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic systems ; Semicircular canal projections to oculomotor neurons ; Otolith projections to oculomotor neurons ; Nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) ; Interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) ; Reticular formation ; Optokinetic pathways ; 6.4 Vestibulospinal systems ; Medial vestibulospinal tract (MVST) ; Lateral vestibulospinal tract (LVST) ; Vestibulo-ocular cervical pathways (VOC) ; Other vestibulospinal tracts ; Spinal projections to the vestibular nuclei ; 6.5 Vestibulocerebellar relations ; Basic circuitry ; Vestibular projections to the cerebellum ; Prepositus nucleus ; Projections from the deep cerebellar nuclei to the ; vestibular nuclei ; Projections from the cerebellar cortex to the vestibular ; nuclei ; Cerebellar cortical modules ; Lateral reticular nucleus ; Vestibulo-paramedian tract projections ; 6.6 Vestibulo-autonomic connections ; 6.7 Vestibular connections with the neocortex ; 6.8 Pathways involving the hippocampal formation ; 6.9 Summary ; 6.10 Selected readings ; 6.11 List of abbreviations ; Chapter 7 -Synaptic Mechanisms in the Vestibular Nuclei ; 7.1 Historical perspective ; 7.2 Basic circuitry of the vestibular nuclei ; Ipsilateral vestibular nerve inputs ; Commissural connections ; 7.3 Neurotransmitters in the vestibular nuclei ; Transmission between the vestibular nerve and secondary ; neurons ; Transmission within the vestibular nucleus ; Output pathways of the vestibular nuclei ; 7.4 Properties of individual neurons ; Resting discharge ; 7.5 Central projections of regular and irregular afferents ; Electrophysiological studies ; Functional ablation of irregular afferents ; 7.6 Convergence from separate vestibular organs ; Convergence from separate vestibular organs ; Canal-canal convergence ; Otolith-otolith convergence ; Spatio-temporal convergence ; Canal-otolith convergence ; Convergence from somatosensory receptors ; 7.7 Summary ; 7.8 Selected readings ; IV. Vestibulo-ocular and Vestibulopinal Mechanisms ; Chapter 8 - An Oculomotor Tutorial ; 8.1 Overview and classification of eye movement types ; 8.2 Ocular structure and functional implications ; The extraocular eye muscles. ; Mechanics of the oculomotor plant ; Oculomotor motoneuron discharge. ; Plant mechanics and premotor control. ; 8.3 Gaze Redirection ; Saccades ; Smooth pursuit ; Vergence ; 8.4 Gaze Stabilization ; Vestibulo-ocular reflexes. ; Optokinetic system. ; 8. 5 Interactions between eye and head movements ; 8.6 Summary ; 8.7 Selected readings ; Chapter 9 -Vestibulo-ocular Reflexes ; 9.1. Semicircular-canal related angular VOR (AVOR) ; General properties of the canal-related AVOR. ; AVOR during high frequency rotations. ; AVOR at low frequencies - velocity storage. ; AVOR-visual interactions: the optokinetic system. ; AVOR in three-dimensions. ; 9.2. Otolith-ocular reflexes ; Tilt VOR. ; Otolith influences on the AVOR during off-vertical axis ; rotations (OVAR). ; Otolith influences on the AVOR during canal/otolith ; conflict. ; Translational VOR (TVOR). ; Optic flow during translation. ; Visual mechanisms for short latency visual compensation ; during translation. ; Distinguishing tilts from translations. ; Differences between the AVOR and the TVOR. ; Functional differences: Foveal rather than full-field image ; stabilization. ; Dependence on viewing distance and eye position. ; Response latency and neural pathways. ; Comparative adaptation ; 9.3 Summary ; 9.4 Selected readings ; Chapter 10-The Vestibulospinal System and Postural Control ; 10.1. Reflexes versus multisensory strategies ; 10.2 Multisensory strategies ; 10.3. Vestibular reflexes: general considerations ; 10.4 Vestibulocollic reflexes ; The angular VCR. ; The linear VCR evoked by translation and tilts. ; The cervicocollic reflex ; 10.5. Control systems analysis of the head-neck plant. ; Head plant. ; Vestibulocollic reflex. ; The cervicocollic reflex ; Reflex interactions. ; Use of control systems models ; 10.6. Vestibulospinal and neck reflexes acting on the ; limbs ; Spatial and temporal properties of the reflexes. ; Afferent origin of the reflexes ; Neural substrate of the reflexes. ; Vestibulospinal actions on hindlimb motoneurons. ; Vestibulospinal actions on forelimb motoneurons. ; Tonic neck reflexes. ; 10.7 Summary ; 10.8 Selected readings ; V. Signal Processing in Alert Animals ; Chapter 11- Signal Processing in Vestibular Nuclei of Alert ; Animals During Natural Behaviors ; 11.1 Introduction ; 11.2 Classes of neurons in head-restrained, alert monkeys ; Position-vestibular-pause (PVP) neurons. ; Vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause cells. ; Eye-head (EH) neurons. ; Burst-tonic (BT) neurons. ; 11.3 Dynamics of neuronal responses ; Frequency response during sinusoidal rotations ; Response linearity ; Velocity storage ; 11.4 Response to linear translations in alert ; head-restrained monkeys ; Distinguishing translational from tilt. ; 11.5 Interactions with the oculomotor pathways that control ; pursuit eye movements ; 11.6 Integration of inputs from vestibular and optokinetic ; pathways ; VN modulation during the OKR ; Optokinetic pathways to the VN. ; 11.7 Integration of vestibular and proprioceptive inputs ; 11.8 Differential processing of active versus passive head ; movements ; Neuronal responses during active versus passive head ; movement. ; Mechanisms for the differential processing of ; actively-generated versus passive head movement. ; 11.9 Vestibular processing depends on current gaze ; strategy. ; Vestibular processing during voluntary gaze shifts. ; Vestibular processing during visual tracking; VOR ; cancellation and eye-head pursuit. ; Vestibular processing during near versus far viewing. ; 11.10 Summary ; 11.11 Selected readings ; Chapter 12 - The Cerebellum and the Vestibular System ; 12. 1 Overview of si