Contributors. Acknowledgments. Introduction. Section 1: Sex/Gender. Introduction: age and gender considerations for psychiatric diagnosis. Why gender matters. DSM's approach to gender: history and controversies. Gender and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Neurobiology and sex/gender. Sociocultural factors and gender. A developmental perspective, with a focus on childhood trauma. The longitudinal laboratory of women's reproductive health. Clinical validators of diagnoses: symptom expression, course, and treatment. Gender and diagnostic criteria. Concluding thoughts. Section 2: Early Childhood. Diagnosis of psychopathology in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. A research agenda for posttraumatic stress disorder in infants, toddlers, and preschool children. Reactive attachment disorder. Measurement of psychopathology in children under the age of six. Nosology of mood disorders in preschool children: state of knowledge and future directions. Diagnosis of anxiety disorders in infants, toddlers, and preschool children. Classifying sleep disorders in infants and toddlers. A classification of feeding disorders of infancy and early childhood. Disruptive behavior disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preschool children: characterizing heterotypic continuities for a developmentally informed nosology for DSM-V. Diagnosis of autism and related disorders in infants and very young children: setting a research agenda for DSM-V. Section 3: The Elderly. Aging-related diagnostic variations: need for diagnostic criteria appropriate for elderly psychiatric patients. Late-life depression: a model for medical classification. Challenges of diagnosing psychiatric disorders in medically ill patients. Use of biomarkers in the elderly: current and future challenges. Impact of psychosocial factors on late-life depression. Index.