"Critical Care of Children with Heart Disease" will summarize the comprehensive medical and surgical management of the acutely-ill patient with congenital and acquired cardiac disease. The aim of the book is to teach bedside physicians, nurses and other caregivers, basic and practical concepts of anatomy, pathophysiology, surgical techniques and peri-operative management of critically ill children and adults with congenital heart disease, allowing these professionals to anticipate, prevent or else treat such pathologies. The book will cover specific cardiac lesions, review their anatomy, pathophysiology, current preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative assessment and management; medical and surgical complications will be briefly described with each lesion further discussed in specific chapters. In addition, the book will have dedicated chapters to management of cardiac patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hemofiltration, hemo or peritoneal dialysis and plasma exchange. Practical guidelines for cardiovascular nursing care will be also included.
General Aspects.- Transition from the Fetal to the Neonatal Circulation.- Triage and Transport of Infants and Children with Cardiac Disease.- Airway Control, Mechanical Ventilation, and Respiratory Care.- Heart-Lung Interactions.- Cardiac Catheterization.- Echocardiography.- Cardiac Anesthesia.- A Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Review.- Sedation and Analgesia.- Monitoring of the Cardiac Patient.- The Effects of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Following Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.- Nursing Care of the Pediatric Cardiac Patient.- Cardiac Database and Risk Factor Assessment. Outcomes Analysis for Congenital Cardiac Disease.- Specific Cardiac Lesions.- Patent Ductus Arteriosus.- Atrial Septal Defects.- Ventricular Septal Defects.- Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defects.- Aortopulmonary Window.- Tetralogy of Fallot.- Tetralogy of Fallot with Absent Pulmonary Valve.- Tetralogy of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia.- Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Interventricular Septum.- Pulmonary Stenosis.- Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction.- Coarctation of the Aorta.- Interrupted Aortic Arch.- Mitral Valve Anomalies and Related Disorders.- Mitral Stenosis.- Prosthetic Valves.- Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.- Single Ventricle. General Aspects.- Anomalous Pulmonary Veins.- Dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries.- Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries (ccTGA) or Levo-Transposition of the Great Arteries (l-TGA).- Truncus Arteriosus.- Double Outlet Right Ventricle.- Ebstein's Disease.- Anomalous Coronary Arteries.- Aortic Valve Regurgitation.- Vascular Rings and Pulmonary Sling.- Takayasu Arteritis.- Aortic Dissection.- Tracheal Reconstruction.- Other Topics.- Acute Pulmonary Hypertension.- Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension.- Acute Myocarditis and Cardiomyopathies.- Pericardial Diseases.- Infective Endocarditis.- Cardiac Failure.- Shock in the Cardiac Patient: A Brief Overview.- Mechanical Circulatory Support in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.- Heart Transplantation.- Arrhythmias in the Intensive Care Unit.- Pacemakers (Temporary and Permanent), Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs) and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.- Discontinuation of Life: Ethical and Legal Issues.- The Challenge of Extra-Cardiac Complications.- Respiratory Complications: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Chylothorax, Diaphragmatic Palsy, and Functional and Respiratory Physiotherapy.- Gastrointestinal Complications: Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Malrotation, and Protein Losing Enteropathy.- Malnutrition and Feeding Difficulties: Guidelines for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition.- Hematological Aspects: Anticoagulation, Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia, Plasma Exchange.- Renal Failure and Replacement Therapy.- Neurogical Complications: Intracranial Bleeding, Stroke and Seizures.- Infections in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit.- Skin Protection.