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Immunology

Immunology
titolo Immunology
sottotitolo Mucosal and Body Surface Defences
autore
argomenti Medicina Immunologia Opere di carattere generale
Medicina Immunologia
Medicina
editore Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley & Sons Ltd)
formato Libro
pagine 398
pubblicazione 2011
ISBN 9780470090046
18app Carta del docente Acquistabile con bonus 18app o Carta del docente
 
47,00 44,65 (-5%)
 
The vast majority of medically important pathogens infect their host across a body surface such as the skin, or across a mucosal tissue such as the respiratory tract or intestines, as these sites are the ones exposed to the external environment. By focusing on immunity at mucosal and body surfaces this book presents a fresh, new approach to the teaching of immunology. After an introduction to the basic structure of the immune system, the book looks at two important families of signalling molecules: cytokines and chemokines, before covering the workings of the mucosal immune system. It continues by examining immunity against the four major groups of pathogens - viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, and concludes by looking at disorders of the immune system, mucosal tumour immunology and the process of vaccination. A fresh, new approach to the subject focusing on mucosal and body surfaces. Describes the mucosal immune systems of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urogenital tracts, as well as the skin. Details the important roles of cytokines and chemokines in an immune response. Separate chapters devoted to immunity against viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Includes chapter summaries, boxes with topics of special interest and an extensive glossary. Clearly written and well- illustrated in full colour throughout. Students across a range of disciplines, including biology, biochemistry, biomedicine, medicine and veterinary sciences, will find this book invaluable, both as an introduction to basic immunology and as a guide to mucosal immune defence mechanisms.
 

Indice testuale

Preface, xv List of Standard Cells and Symbols, xvii 1 Basic Concepts in Immunology, 1 1.1 The immune system, 1 1.2 Tissues and cells of the immune system, 1 1.3 Activation, regulation and functions of immune responses, 4 1.4 Innate versus adaptive immunity, 5 1.5 Primary and secondary immune responses, 6 1.6 Immune cell development, 7 1.7 Mast cells and basophils, 9 1.8 Eosinophils, 11 1.9 Neutrophils, 11 1.10 Monocytes and macrophages, 11 1.11 Dendritic cells, 12 1.12 Natural killer cells, 12 1.13 CD4+ T helper cells, 13 1.14 CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, 14 1.15 B cells, 15 1.16 gammadelta T cells, 16 1.17 Natural killer T cells, 16 1.18 Anatomy of the immune system, 16 1.19 Lymph nodes, 16 1.20 Spleen, 19 1.21 Summary, 19 2 The Innate Immune System, 20 2.1 Introduction to the innate immune system, 20 2.2 Innate immune receptors and cells, 20 2.3 TLRs and pattern recognition, 22 2.4 TLR signalling in response to LPS, 23 2.5 Peptidoglycan and Nods, 24 2.6 Nod-like receptors recognize PAMPs and DAMPs, 25 2.7 Damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), 26 2.8 Complement proteins perform several innate immune functions, 27 2.9 The classical complement pathway, 28 2.10 The lectin and alternative complement pathways, 29 2.11 Biological properties of complement cleavage products, 29 2.12 Opsonization by complement proteins, 30 2.13 Phagocytosis, 31 2.14 Fc receptors induce phagocytosis, 32 2.15 Neutrophil function and the respiratory burst, 32 2.16 ADCC, 33 2.17 NK cells recognize missing self, 35 2.18 Activating adaptive immunity, 36 2.19 Dendritic cells link innate and adaptive immunity, 38 2.20 Summary, 40 3 The Adaptive Immune System, 41 3.1 Introduction to adaptive immunity, 41 3.2 T cells and B cells recognize foreign antigens, 41 3.3 Overview of antibody structure, 42 3.4 Constant region and antibody isotypes, 45 3.5 B cell receptor (BCR) diversity, 46 3.6 Genetic recombination of BCR genes, 46 3.7 Mechanism of VDJ recombination, 47 3.8 Introducing junctional diversity, 48 3.9 Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation, 49 3.10 Immunoglobulin class switching, 50 3.11 Structure of Fc receptors, 51 3.12 Fc receptor specificity and affinity, 53 3.13 Cross-linking of antibody is necessary for Fc receptor signalling, 53 3.14 Fc receptor immune functions, 54 3.15 T cell receptor diversification, 54 3.16 T cells undergo positive and negative selection within the thymus, 55 3.17 Antigen presentation to T cells, 57 3.18 MHC class II processing pathway, 59 3.19 MHC class I processing pathway, 59 3.20 Activation requires co-stimulation, 60 3.21 Late co-stimulatory signals, 62 3.22 Activation of B cell responses, 63 3.23 CD4+ T helper cell differentiation, 63 3.24 Activation of CTLs, 65 3.25 Generation of memory T cells, 66 3.26 Summary, 67 4 Cytokines, 68 4.1 Introduction to cytokines, 68 4.2 Structure of cytokine families, 69 4.3 IL-1 superfamily, 71 4.4 IL-6 family, 71 4.5 IL-10 family, 72 4.6 Common gamma-chain family, 73 4.7 IL-12 family, 74 4.8 Interferons, 75 4.9 TNF ligand superfamily, 75 4.10 Growth factors, 77 4.11 Functional classification Th1 versus Th2, 78 4.12 Th17, immunopathology and regulatory cytokines, 79 4.13 Cytokine receptor signalling, 79 4.14 Type I and type II cytokine receptors, 79 4.15 The JAK/STAT signalling pathway, 80 4.16 IL-2 signalling through the JAK/STAT pathway, 81 4.17 The JAK/STAT pathway is also used by IL-6, 83 4.18 Plasticity in type I cytokine signalling, 83 4.19 Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS), 83 4.20 IFN-gamma signalling pathway, 84 4.21 TGF-beta and the SMAD signalling pathway, 85 4.22 Type III cytokine receptors and the TNF receptor family, 86 4.23 The IKK complex and the activation of NF-kappaB, 87 4.24 The IL-1R family of type IV cytokine receptors activate NF-kappaB, 88 4.25 Soluble cytokine receptors act as decoy receptors, 90 4.26 IL-33 and ST2 signal regulation, 91 4.27 Potential for cytokine therapy, 91 4.28 Summary, 92 5 Chemokines, 93 5.1 Introduction, 93 5.2 Structure and nomenclature of chemokines, 93 5.3 Chemokine receptors, 94 5.4 Expression of chemokines and their receptors, 97 5.5 Chemokines promote extravasation of leukocytes, 97 5.6 Chemotaxis, 99 5.7 Chemokine receptor signalling cascade, 99 5.8 Tissue specific homing, 100 5.9 Lymphocyte migration to secondary lymphoid tissues, 101 5.10 Chemokines involved in lymphoid structure formation, 102 5.11 Chemokines contribute to homeostasis, 104 5.12 Chemokine receptors on T cell subsets, 104 5.13 Redundancy in the chemokine/receptor system, 106 5.14 Chemokines in disease, 108 5.15 Chemokines as new anti-inflammatory drugs, 109 5.16 Summary, 110 6 Basic Concepts in Mucosal Immunology, 111 6.1 Introduction, 111 6.2 What is a mucosal tissue?, 112 6.3 Immune defence at mucosal tissue is multi-layered, 113 6.4 Origins of mucosal associated lymphoid tissue, 114 6.5 Concept of the common mucosal immune system, 115 6.6 How do T and B lymphocytes migrate into mucosal tissues?, 116 6.7 Special features of mucosal epithelium, 117 6.8 Toll-like receptors and NOD proteins in the mucosa, 120 6.9 Antigen sampling at mucosal surfaces, 121 6.10 Mucosal dendritic cells, 122 6.11 Secretory dimeric IgA at mucosal surfaces, 124 6.12 Regulation of J-chain and secretory component expression, 126 6.13 How does the sub-mucosa differ from the epithelium?, 126 6.14 Organized lymphoid tissue of the mucosa, 127 6.15 Cytokines in the mucosa, 128 6.16 Pathogens that enter via mucosal sites, 130 6.17 Immune diseases of mucosal tissues, 130 6.18 Summary, 132 7 Immunology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 133 7.1 Structure of the gastrointestinal tract, 133 7.2 Development of the gastrointestinal tract, 133 7.3 The digestive tract as a mucosal tissue, 135 7.4 Barrier function, 136 7.5 Defensins and Trefoil factors, 138 7.6 Structure of Peyer's patches, 139 7.7 Lymphoid follicles and germinal centre formation, 140 7.8 M cells sample the intestinal lumen, 143 7.9 Dendritic cells sample the lumen contents, 143 7.10 Lymphocytes within the epithelium (IELs), 143 7.11 gammadelta T cells in the GALT, 146 7.12 NKT cells, 147 7.13 T cells in the lamina propria, 148 7.14 Maintenance of T cell homeostasis, 148 7.15 Sub-mucosal B cells and mucosal IgA, 149 7.16 How IgA is produced at intestinal mucosal sites, 150 7.17 Cytokines in the gut, 151 7.18 Chemokines and the homing of lymphocytes to GALT, 152 7.19 Pathogens and immune diseases, 153 7.20 Summary, 154 8 Immunology of the Airways, 156 8.1 The airways as a mucosal tissue, 156 8.2 Development of the respiratory tract, 156 8.3 The structure of the respiratory tract, 158 8.4 Barrier function and the mucociliary elevator, 159 8.5 Mucins and mucociliary clearance, 160 8.6 Defensins and antimicrobial peptides, 160 8.7 Structure of the tonsils and adenoids of the Waldeyer's Ring, 161 8.8 Local lymph nodes and immune generation, 163 8.9 Structure of the NALT, 165 8.10 Structure of the BALT, 165 8.11 Cells of the lower respiratory tract, 166 8.12 Surfactant proteins, 167 8.13 Immune modulation by airway epithelial cells, 167 8.14 Innate immune response, 168 8.15 Dendritic cells are located throughout the respiratory tract, 168 8.16 Alveolar macrophages maintain homeostasis, 169 8.17 NK cells in the lung, 171 8.18 T cells at effector sites in the lung, 171 8.19 Memory T cell responses within the lung, 172 8.20 Migration of circulating T cell into the lung tissue, 172 8.21 IgA production in the respiratory tract, 173 8.22 Respiratory diseases and pathogens, 174 8.23 Summary, 176 9 Immunology of the Urogenital Tract and Conjunctiva, 177 9.1 The urogenital tract as a MALT, 177 9.2 Epithelial barrier function, 178 9.3 Passive immunity, 181 9.4 Immunoglobulins, 181 9.5 APCs in genital tract mucosa, 182 9.6 NK cells and the semi-allogeneic foetus, 183 9.7 Pre-eclampsia is an immune-mediated disease, 184 9.8 Maintenance of foetal tolerance, 185 9.9 T cells and adaptive immunity, 186 9.10 Sexually transmitted diseases and pelvic inflammatory disease, 187 9.11 Alloimmunization and autoimmune diseases, 189 9.12 The foetal and neonatal immune system, 189 9.13 Immunity in the urinary tract, 190 9.14 Eye associated lymphoid tissue, 191 9.15 Conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), 192 9.16 Immune privilege of the eye, 192 9.17 Immune privilege and inflammation, 193 9.18 Conjunctivitis, 194 9.19 Summary, 195 10 Immunology of the Skin, 196 10.1 The skin as an immune tissue, 196 10.2 Barrier Immune function of the skin, 196 10.3 Cellular immune system of the skin, 198 10.4 Keratinocytes can act as immune cells, 199 10.5 Keratinocytes secrete antimicrobial peptides, 200 10.6 Langerhan's cells act as immune sentinels in skin, 202 10.7 Dermal dendritic cells and cross-presentation of antigen, 203 10.8 Mast cells and NK cells in the skin, 205 10.9 Intraepidermal lymphocytes in the skin, 206 10.10 Lymphocytes in the dermis, 206 10.11 Skin homing T cells express CLA, 206 10.12 Chemokines and migration, 207 10.13 Initi

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