Basic Aspects Cerebellar anatomy. Basic physiology of the cerebellum. Clinical neurophysiology of cerebellar disease. Neurotransmitters in cerebellum. Clinical signs in cerebellar disease. Oculomotor deficits in cerebellar disease. Cognitive deficits in cerebellar disease. Imaging studies in ataxic diseases. Posturography. Neuropathology of cerebellar diseases. Clinical approach to ataxia. Acquired Ataxias. Acquired ataxias, infectious and parainfectious. Acquired ataxias, vascular causes. Acquired ataxias, mass lesions. Acquired ataxias, deficiency/metabolic. Acquired ataxias, immune mediated. Acquired ataxias, toxic. Acquired ataxias, paraneoplastic. Ataxic neuropathies. Degenerative ataxias. Epidemiology of degenerative ataxias. Classification of ataxias. Ataxic disorders: geographic considerations. Late onset idiopathic ataxias. Inherited ataxias. Congenital ataxias. Ataxias in mitochondrial diseases. Ataxias due to inherited metabolic diseases. Overview of autosomal recessive ataxias. FA. AVED/abetalipoproteinemia. AT. AOA I and II. Ataxias from other DNA repair defects. Other recessive and childhood ataxias. Animal models of AR ataxias. Overview of dominant ataxias. SCA I. SCA 2. SCA 3. SCA 6. SCA 7. SCA 17. DRPLA. Basic mechanisms of triplet repeat expansion. Pathogenesis of polyQ ataxias. SCA 8. SCA 10. SCA 12. SCA 14. Ataxia related to mutations in fibroblast growth factor 14 gene. EA 1 and EA 2. SCA 4. SCA 5. SCA 9. SCA 11. SCA 13. SCA 15. SCA 16. SCA 18-25. Other issues related to ataxias. Specific and symptomatic management of ataxias. Genetic counselling and testing. X-linked ataxias. Conclusions.