MRI in Practice continues to be the number one reference book and study guide for the registry review examination for MRI offered by the American Registry for Radiologic Technologists (ARRT). This latest edition offers in-depth chapters covering all core areas, including: basic principles, image weighting and contrast, spin and gradient echo pulse sequences, spatial encoding, k-space, protocol optimization, artefacts, instrumentation, and MRI safety. The leading MRI reference book and study guide. Now with a greater focus on the physics behind MRI. Offers, for the first time, equations and their explanations and scan tips. Brand new chapters on MRI equipment, vascular imaging and safety. Presented in full color, with additional illustrations and high-quality MRI images to aid understanding. Includes refined, updated and expanded content throughout, along with more learning tips and practical applications. Features a new glossary. MRI in Practice is an important text for radiographers, technologists, radiology residents, radiologists, and other students and professionals working within imaging, including medical physicists and nurses.
Preface to the Fifth Edition Acknowledgments List of Acronyms Equation symbols About the Companion Website Chapter 1 Basic principles Introduction Atomic structure Motion in the atom MR active nuclei The hydrogen nucleus Alignment Net magnetic vector (NMV) Precession and precessional (Larmor) frequency Precessional phase Resonance MR signal Pulse timing parameters Further reading Chapter 2 Image weighting and contrast Introduction Image contrast Relaxation T1 recovery T2 decay Contrast mechanisms Relaxation in different tissues T1 contrast T2 contrast Proton density contrast Weighting Other contrast mechanisms Further reading Chapter 3 Spin echo pulse sequences Introduction RF rephasing Conventional spin echo Fast or turbo spin echo FSE/TSE) Inversion recovery (IR) Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) Further Reading Chapter 4 Gradient echo pulse sequences Introduction Variable flip angle Gradient rephasing Weighting in gradient echo pulse sequences Weighting mechanism 1 extrinsic contrast parameters Weighting mechanism 2 the steady state Weighing mechanism 3 residual transverse magnetization Coherent or rewound gradient echo Incoherent or spoiled gradient echo Reverse-echo gradient echo Balanced gradient echo Fast gradient echo Echo planar imaging (EPI) Further reading Chapter 5 Spatial encoding Introduction Mechanism of gradients Gradient axes Slice selection Frequency encoding Phase encoding Sampling Data collection and image formation Bringing it all together pulse sequence timing Further reading Chapter 6 k-space Introduction Part 1 what is k-space? Part 2 - how are data acquired and how are images created from this data? Part 3 some important facts about k-space Part 4: how do pulse sequences fill k-space? Part 5: options that fill k-space Further reading Chapter 7 Protocol optimization Introduction Signal to noise ratio (SNR) Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) Spatial resolution Scan time Trade-offs Protocol development and modification Further reading Chapter 8 Artefacts Introduction Phase mismapping Aliasing Chemical shift artefact Out of phase signal cancellation Magnetic susceptibility artefact Truncation artefact Cross-excitation/cross-talk Zipper artefact Shading artefact Moire artefact Magic angle Equipment faults Flow artefacts Flow-dependent (non-contrast enhanced) angiography Black-blood imaging Phase contrast MRA Further reading Chapter 9 Instrumentation Introduction Magnetism Scanner configurations Magnet system Magnet shielding Shim system Gradient system RF system Patient transport system Computer system and graphic user interface Further reading Chapter 10 MRI safety Introduction (and disclaimer) Definitions used in MRI safety Psychological effects The spatially-varying static field Electromagnetic (radiofrequency) fields Time-Varying Gradient Magnetic Fields Cryogen safety Cryogen safety Additional resources Further reading Appendix Glossary Index