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Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics
titolo Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics
autori ,
argomento Medicina Pediatria Opere di carattere generale
editore Elsevier
formato Libro
lingua inglese
pagine 4264
pubblicazione 2019
ISBN 9780323529501
 
149,99 127,49
Risparmi: € 22,50
 
Disponibilità immediata
Welcome to the 21st Edition of Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics - the reference of choice among pediatricians, pediatric residents, and others involved in the care of young patients. This fully revised edition continues to provide the breadth and depth of knowledge you expect from Nelson, while also keeping you up to date with new advances in the science and art of pediatric practice. Authoritative and reader-friendly, it delivers the information you need in a concise, easy-to-use format for everyday reference and study. From rapidly changing diagnostic and treatment protocols to new technologies to the wide range of biologic, psychologic, and social problems faced by children today, this comprehensive 2-volume reference keeps you on the cutting edge of the very best in pediatric care. Includes more than 70 new chapters, including Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases, Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders, Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, Zika, update on Ebola, Epigenetics, Autoimmune Encephalitis, Global Health, Racism, Media Violence, Strategies for Health Behavior Change, Positive Parenting, and many more. Features hundreds of new figures and tables throughout for visual clarity and quick reference. Offers new and expanded information on CRISPR gene editing; LGBT health care; gun violence; vaccinations; immune treatment with CAR-T cells; new technology in imaging and genomics; new protocols in cancer, genetics, immunology, and pulmonary medicine; and much more. Provides fresh perspectives from four new associate editors: Nathan J. Blum of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Karen Wilson of Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York; Samir S. Shah of Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; and Robert C. Tasker of Boston Children's Hospital. Provides regular updates online, written exclusively for Nelson. Remains your indispensable source for definitive, evidence-based answers on every aspect of pediatric care. Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.
 

Indice testuale

ChapTitle Overview of Pediatrics Child Health Disparities Racism Global Health Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children Safety in Healthcare for Children Ethics in Pediatric Care Pediatric Palliative Care Domestic and International Adoption Foster and Kinship Care Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care Maximizing Children's Health: Screening, Anticipatory Guidance, and Counseling Injury Control Impact of Violence on Children Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Violence Media Violence Effects of War on Children Child Trafficking Abused and Neglected Children Sexual Abuse Medical Child Abuse (Factitious Disorder by Proxy, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy) Strategies for Health Behavior Change Developmental and Behavioral Theories Positive Parenting and Support Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development The Newborn The First Year Infant Crying and Colic The Second Year The Preschool Years Middle Childhood Adolescence Assessment of Growth Developmental and Behavioral Screening and Surveillance Childcare Loss, Separation, and Bereavement Sleep Medicine Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing Psychopharmacology Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders Rumination and Pica Rumination Disorder Pica Motor Disorders and Habits Tic Disorders Stereotypic Movement Disorders Anxiety Disorders Mood Disorders Major and Other Depressive Disorders Bipolar and Related Disorders Suicide and Attempted Suicide Eating Disorders Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders Tantrums and Breath-holding spells Lying, Stealing and Truancy Aggression Self-injurious behavior Childhood Psychoses Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders Psychosis Associated with Epilepsy Catatonia in Children and Adolescents Acute Phobic Hallucinations of Childhood Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Dyslexia Math and Writing Disabilities Math Disabilities Writing Disabilities Language Development and Communication Disorders Child-Onset Fluency Disorder Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability Intellectual Disability with Regression Autism Spectrum Disorder Nutritional Requirements Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents Nutrition, Food Security, and Health Refeeding Syndrome Failure to Thrive Overweight and Obesity Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Niacin (Vitamin B3) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Biotin Folate Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess Vitamin E Deficiency Vitamin K Deficiency Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders Composition of Body Fluids Regulation of Osmolality and Volume Sodium Potassium Magnesium Phosphorus Acid-Base Balance Maintenance and Replacement Therapy Deficit Therapy Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics Principles of Drug Therapy Anesthesia and Perioperative Care Anesthetic Neurotoxicity Sedation and Procedural Pain Pediatric Pain Management Poisoning Complementary Therapies, and Integrative Medicine Emergency Medical Services for Children Interfacility Transport of the Seriously Ill or Injured Pediatric Patient Outcomes and Risk-Adjustment Principles Applicable to the Developing World Triage of the Acutely Ill Child Resuscitation Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma Spinal Cord Injuries in Children Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization Brain Death Syncope POTS Shock Respiratory Distress and Failure Mechanical Ventilation Long-term Mechanical Ventilation Altitude-associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness) Drowning and Submersion Injury Burn injuries Cold Injuries Integration of Genetics into Pediatric Practice Genetic Counseling Management and Treatment of Genetic Disorders The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine The Human Genome Patterns of Genetic Transmission Cytogenetics Methods of Chromosome Analysis Down Syndrome and Other Abnormalities of Chromosome Number Abnormalities of Chromosome Structure Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Fragile Chromosome Sites Mosaicism Chromosome Instability Syndromes Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting Genetics of Common Disorders Major Genetic Approaches to the Study of Common Pediatric Disorders Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids Phenylalanine Tyrosine Methionine Cysteine/Cystine Tryptophan Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Related Organic Acidemias Glycine Serine Proline Glutamic Acid Genetic Disorders of Neurotransmitters Urea Cycle and Hyperammonemia (Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine) Histidine Lysine N-Acetylaspartic Acid (Canavan Disease) Defects in Metabolism of Lipids Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid ss-Oxidation Disorders of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport Lipidoses (Lysosomal Storage Disorders) Mucolipidoses Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates Glycogen Storage Diseases Defects in Galactose Metabolism Defects in Fructose Metabolism Defects in Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism Associated with Lactic Acidosis Defects in Pentose Metabolism Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation Congenital Disorders of Glycosolation Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders Mucopolysaccharidoses Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome The Porphyrias Hypoglycemia Overview of Mortality and Morbidity The Newborn Infant History in Neonatal Pediatrics Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant Routine Newborn Care Circumcision Parent-Infant Bonding High-Risk Pregnancies The Fetus Fetal Growth and Maturity Fetal Distress Maternal Disease and the Fetus Maternal Medication and Toxin Exposure and the Fetus Teratogens Radiation Intrauterine Diagnosis of Fetal Disease Treatment and Prevention of Fetal Disease Fetal Intervention and Surgery The High-Risk Infant Multiple Gestation Pregnancies Extreme and Very Preterm Infants Moderate and Late Pre-Term Infants Term and Post-Term Infants Follow-up of High-Risk Infants after Discharge Infant Transport Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period Hyperthermia Neontal Cold Injury Edema Hypocalcemia (Tetany) Hypermanganazemia Nervous System Disorders The Cranium Traumatic, Epidural, Subdural, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Intracranial-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia Hypoxia-Ischemic Encephalopathy Spine and Spinal Cord Peripheral Nerve Injuries Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies Respiratory Tract Disorders Transition to Pulmonary Respiration Apnea Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease) BPD PDA Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn Aspiration of Foreign Material (Fetal Aspiration Syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonia) Meconium Aspiration Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (Persistent Fetal Circulation) Diaphragmatic Hernia Foramen of Morgagni Hernia Paraesophageal Hernia Eventration Extrapulmonary Air Leaks (Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, Pneumopericardium) Pulmonary Hemorrhage Digestive System Disorders Meconium Ileus, Peritonitis, and Intestinal Obstruction Necrotizing Enterocolitis Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Kernicterus Blood Disorders Anemia in the Newborn Infant Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis) Plethora in the Newborn Infant (Polycythemia) Hemorrhage in the Newborn Infant The Umbilicus Abstinence Syndromes Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal) Maternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Neonatal Behavioral Syndromes Fetal Alcohol Exposure The Endocrine System Infants of Diabetic Mothers Dysmorphology Epidemiology of Infections Healthcare?Associated Infections (HAI) Congenital Infections Adolescent Physical and Social Development Gender and Sexual Identity Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents Transgender Care The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems Delivery of Health Care to Adolescents Legal Issues Screening Procedures Transitioning to Adult Care Violent Behavior Substance Abuse Alcohol Tobacco and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Marijuana Inhalants Hallucinogens Cocaine Amphetamines Stimulant Abuse and Diversion Opiates Bath salts and other drugs of abuse The Breast Menstrual Problems Amenorrhea Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Dysmenorrhea Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Contraception Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Other Progestin-only Methods Combined Hormonal Contraceptives Emergency Contraception (EC) Dual Protection Other Barrier Methods Other Methods Adolescent Pregnancy Adolescent Sexual Assault Sexually Transmitted Infections Chronic Overlapping Pain Syndromes Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency Lymphocyte Development and Function Primary Defects of Antibody Production Treatment of B-Cell Defects Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity Immune Deficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Combined Immunodeficiency Defects of Innate Immunity Treatment of Cellular or Combined Immunodeficiency Immune Dysregulation with Autoimmunity or Lymphoproliferation Neutrophils Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells Eosinophils Disorders of Phagocyte Function Leukopenia Leukocytosis The Complement System Disorders of the Complement System Evaluation of the Complement System Genetic Deficiencies of Complement Components Deficiencies of Plasma, Membrane, or Serosal Complement Control Proteins Secondary Disorders of Complement Treatment of Complement Disorders Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Veno-occlusive Disease Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease Diagnosis of Allergic Disease Allergic Rhinitis Childhood Asthma Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema) Insect Allergy Ocular Allergies Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema Anaphylaxis Serum Sickness Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods Adverse Reactions to Drugs Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides Reactive and Post-Infectious Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Neonatal Lupus Juvenile Dermatomyositis Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon Behcet Disease Sjoegren Syndrome The Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases Amyloidosis Sarcoidosis Kawasaki Disease Vasculitis Syndromes Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura Takayasu Arteritis Polyarteritis Nodosa and Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa ANCA-associated vasculitis Other Vasculitic Syndromes Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes Growing Pains Small Fiber Polyneuropathy Fibromyalgia Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Erythromelalgia Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis Diagnostic Microbiology The Microbiome and Pediatric Health Immunization Practices International Immunization Practices Infection Prevention and Control Childcare and Communicable Diseases Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally Fever Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate (0-2 mos) Fever in the Older Child Fever of Unknown Origin Infections in Immunocompromised Persons Infections Occurring with Primary Immunodeficiencies Infections Occuring with Acquired Immunodeficiencies Prevention of Infection in Immunocompromised Persons Infection Associated with Medical Devices Principles of Antibacterial Therapy Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Group A Streptococcus Rheumatic Fever Group B Streptococcus Non-Group A or B Streptococci Enterococcus Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) Listeria monocytogenes Actinomyces Nocardia Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus) Kingella kingae Haemophilus influenzae Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi) Moraxella catarrhalis Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis) Salmonella Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis Enteric Fever (Typhoid Fever) Shigella Escherichia coli Cholera Campylobacter Yersinia Yersinia enterocolitica Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Plague (Yersinia pestis) Aeromonas and Plesiomonas Aeromonas Plesiomonas shigelloides Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas Pseudomonas Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Stenotrophomonas Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Brucella Legionella Bartonella Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae) Bartonellosis (Bartonella bacilliformis) Trench Fever (Bartonella quintana) Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis Hepatis (Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana) Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) Tetanus (Clostridium tetani) Clostridium difficile Infection Other Anaerobic Infections Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae) Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections Yaws (Treponema pertenue) Bejel (Endemic Syphilis: Treponema pallidum endemicum) Pinta (Treponema carateum) Leptospira Relapsing Fever (Borrelia) Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) Mycoplasma pneumoniae Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum) Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae Chlamydia trachomatis Trachoma Genital Tract Infections Conjunctivitis and Pneumonia in Newborns Lymphogranuloma Venereum Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci) Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii) Mediterranean Spotted Fever or Boutonneuse Fever (Rickettsia conorii) Rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari) Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) Typhus Group Rickettsioses Murine (endemic or flea-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia typhi) Epidemic (louse-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) Ehrlichioses and Anaplasmosis Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii) Principles of Antifungal Therapy Candida Neonatal Infections Infections in Immunocompetent Children and Adolescents Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Adolescents Cryptococcus neoformans Malassezia Aspergillus Allergic Disease (Hypersensitivity Syndromes) Saprophytic (Noninvasive) Syndromes Invasive Disease Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum) Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis) Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species) Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii) Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis) Pneumocystis Jirovecii Principles of Antiviral Therapy Measles Rubella Mumps Polioviruses Nonpolio Enteroviruses Parvoviruses Herpes Simplex Virus Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections Epstein-Barr Virus Cytomegalovirus Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7) Human Herpesvirus 8 Influenza Viruses Parainfluenza Viruses Respiratory Syncytial Virus Human Metapneumovirus Adenoviruses Rhinoviruses Coronaviruses Rotaviruses, Calicivirus, and Astrovirus Human Papillomaviruses Arboviral Infections Eastern Equine Encephalitis Western Equine Encephalitis St. Louis Encephalitis West Nile Encephalitis Powassan Encephalitis LaCrosse and California Encephalitis Colorado Tick Fever Chikungunya Fever Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis Tick-Borne Encephalitis Zika Virus Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Yellow Fever Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Rabies Polyomaviruses Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2) Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Amebiasis Giardiasis and Balantidiasis Giardia lamblia Balantidiasis Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis) Leishmaniasis (Leishmania) African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei complex) American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi) Malaria (Plasmodium) Babesiosis (Babesia) Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides) Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.) Cutaneous Larva Migrans Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichuria) Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis) Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis) Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti) Other Tissue Nematodes Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans) Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma) Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal) Adult Tapeworm Infections Cysticercosis Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis) Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated with Other Conditions Malocclusion Cleft Lip and Palate Syndromes with Oral Manifestations Dental Caries Periodontal Diseases Dental Trauma Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus Common Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Aids Congenital Anomalies Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula Laryngotracheoesophageal Clefts Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus Dysmotility Hiatal Hernia Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Non-GERD Esophagitis Esophageal Perforation Esophageal Varices Ingestions Foreign Bodies in the Esophagus Caustic Ingestions Normal Development, Structure, and Function Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis Congenital Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric Duplication Gastric Volvulus Hypertrophic Gastropathy Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation Duodenal Obstruction Jejunal and Ileal Atresia and Obstruction Malrotation Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct Intestinal Duplication Meckel Diverticulum and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy Encopresis and Functional Constipation Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon (Hirschsprung Disease) Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (Wilkie Syndrome, Cast Syndrome, Arteriomesenteric Duodenal Compression Syndrome) Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions Ileus Adhesions Intussusception Closed-Loop Obstructions Foreign Bodies and Bezoars Foreign Bodies in the Stomach and Intestine Bezoars Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Crohn Disease (Regional Enteritis, Regional lleitis, Granulomatous Colitis) Very Early Onset IBD Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Disorders of Malabsorption Evaluation of Children with Suspected Intestinal Malabsorption Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy) Other Malabsorptive Syndromes Intestinal Infections and Infestations Associated with Malabsorption Immunodeficiency Disorders Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease Short Bowel Syndrome Chronic Malnutrition Enzyme Deficiencies Liver and Biliary Disorders Causing Malabsorption Rare Inborn Defects Causing Malabsorption Malabsorption in Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Malabsorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Intestinal Transplantation in Children with Intestinal Failure Acute Gastroenteritis in Children Traveler's Diarrhea Chronic Diarrhea Diarrhea from Neuroendocrine Tumors Functional Abdominal pain (Nonorganic Chronic Abdominal pain) Cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraine Acute Appendicitis Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum Anorectal Malformations Anal Fissure Perianal Abscess and Fistula Hemorrhoids Rectal Mucosal Prolapse Pilonidal Sinus and Abscess Tumors of the Digestive Tract Inguinal Hernias Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology Anatomic Abnormalities Physiology Pancreatic Function Tests Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis Chronic Pancreatitis Pseudocyst of the Pancreas Pancreatic Tumors Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System Manifestations of Liver Disease Evaluation of Patients with Possible Liver Dysfunction Cholestasis Neonatal Cholestasis Cholestasis in the Older Child Metabolic Diseases of the Liver Inherited Deficient Conjugation of Bilirubin (Familial Nonhemolytic Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia) Wilson Disease Indian Childhood Cirrhosis Neonatal Iron Storage Disease Miscellaneous Metabolic Diseases of the Liver Viral Hepatitis Liver Abscess Liver Disease Associated with Systemic Disorders Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mitochondrial Hepatopathies Autoimmune Hepatitis Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury Fulminant Hepatic Failure Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver Diseases of the Gallbladder Portal Hypertension and Varices Liver Transplantation Malformations Ascites Chylous Ascites Peritonitis Acute Primary Peritonitis Acute Secondary Peritonitis Acute Secondary Localized Peritonitis (Peritoneal Abscess) Epigastric Hernia Incisional Hernia Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse (SUPC) BRUE / ALTE Congenital Disorders of the Nose Acquired Disorders of the Nose Foreign Body Epistaxis Nasal Polyps The Common Cold Sinusitis Acute Pharyngitis Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess Tonsils and Adenoids Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis) Infectious Upper Airway Obstruction Bacterial Tracheitis Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi Laryngomalacia Congenital Subglottic Stenosis Vocal Cord Paralysis Congenital Laryngeal Webs and Atresia Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma Laryngoceles and Saccular Cysts Posterior Laryngeal Cleft and Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft Vascular and Cardiac Anomalies Tracheal Stenoses, Webs, and Atresia Foregut Cysts Tracheomalacia and Bronchomalacia Foreign Bodies of the Airway Laryngeal Foreign Bodies Tracheal Foreign Bodies Bronchial Foreign Bodies Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis Congenital Subglottic Stenosis Acquired Laryngotracheal Stenosis Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi Vocal Nodules Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma Vascular Anomalies Other Laryngeal Neoplasms Tracheal Neoplasms Bronchial Tumors Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis Wheezing in Infants: Bronchiolitis Bronchitis Plastic Bronchitis Emphysema and Overinflation ?1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema Other Distal Airway Diseases Bronciolitis Obliterans Follicular Bronchitis Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis Congenital Disorders of the Lung Pulmonary Agenesis and Aplasia Pulmonary Hypoplasia Congenital Cystic Malformation Pulmonary Sequestration Bronchogenic Cysts Congenital Pulmonary Lymphangiectasia Lung Hernia Other Congenital Malformations of the Lung Pulmonary Edema Aspiration Syndromes Chronic Recurrent Aspiration Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease Hypersensitivity Pneumonia Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease Granulomatous Lung Disease Eosinophilic Lung Disease Interstitial Lung Diseases Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pleural Effusion and Empyema Dry or Plastic Pleural Effusion Serofibrinous or Serosanguineous Pleural Effusion Empyema Bronchiectasis Pulmonary Abscess Cystic Fibrosis Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome) Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood Inherited Disorders of Surfactant Metabolism Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Pulmonary Hemosiderosis Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage Pulmonary Embolus and Infarction Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemoptysis Atelectasis Pulmonary Tumors Pneumothorax Pneumomediastinum Hydrothorax Hemothorax Chylothorax Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function Pectus Excavatum (Funnel Chest) Pectus Carinatum and Sternal Clefts Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (Thoracic-Pelvic-Phalangeal Dystrophy) Achondroplasia Kyphoscoliosis: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Congential Scoliosis Congenital Rib Anomalies Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency Neuromuscular Diseases Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome Other Conditions Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation Cardiac Development Early Cardiac Morphogenesis Cardiac Looping Cardiac Septation Aortic Arch Development Cardiac Differentiation Developmental Changes in Cardiac Function The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition The Fetal Circulation The Transitional Circulation The Neonatal Circulation History and Physical Examination Laboratory Evaluation Radiologic Assessment Electrocardiography Hematologic Data Echocardiography Exercise Testing MRI, MRA, CT, and Radionuclide Studies Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child with Congenital Heart Disease Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions Atrial Septal Defect Ostium Secundum Defect Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Atrioventricular Septal Defects (Ostium Primum and Atrioventricular Canal or Endocardial Cushion Defects) Ventricular Septal Defect Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect with Aortic Insufficiency Patent Ductus Arteriosus Aortopulmonary Window Defect Coronary Artery Fistula Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Obstructive Lesions Pulmonary Valve Stenosis with Intact Ventricular Septum Infundibular Pulmonary Stenosis and Double-Chamber Right Ventricle Pulmonary Stenosis in Combination with an Intracardiac Shunt Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis Aortic Stenosis Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation with Ventricular Septal Defect Coarctation with Other Cardiac Anomalies and Interrupted Aortic Arch Congenital Mitral Stenosis Pulmonary Venous Hypertension Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Regurgitant Lesions Pulmonary Valvular Insufficiency and Congenital Absence of the Pulmonary Valve Congenital Mitral Insufficiency Mitral Valve Prolapse Tricuspid Regurgitation Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Evaluation of the Critically Ill Neonate with Cyanosis and Respiratory Distress Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions: Lesions Associated with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow Tetralogy of Fallot Tetraology of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum Tricuspid Atresia Double-Outlet Right Ventricle Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis Ebstein Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Lesions Associated with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow D-Transposition of the Great Arteries D-Transposition of the Great Arteries with Intact Ventricular Septum Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect L-Transposition of the Great Arteries (Corrected Transposition) Double-Outlet Right Ventricle Without Pulmonary Stenosis Double-Outlet Right Ventricle with Malposition of the Great Arteries (Taussig-Bing Anomaly) Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Truncus Arteriosus Single Ventricle (Double-Inlet Ventricle, Univentricular Heart) Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Abnormal Positions of the Heart and the Heterotaxy Syndromes (Asplenia, Polysplenia) Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations Anomalies of the Aortic Arch Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Arteries Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula Ectopia Cordis Diverticulum of the Left Ventricle Pulmonary Hypertension Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary Vascular Disease (Eisenmenger Syndrome) General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease Congenital Heart Disease in Adults Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart Principles of Antiarrhythmic Therapy Sinus Arrhythmias and Extrasystoles Supraventricular Tachycardia Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias Long Q-T Syndromes Sinus Node Dysfunction AV Blcok Sudden Death Infective Endocarditis Rheumatic Heart Disease Diseases of the Myocardium Dilated Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Left Ventricular Noncompaction, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, and Endocardial Fibroelastosis Myocarditis Diseases of the Pericardium Acute Pericarditis Constrictive Pericarditis Tumors of the Heart Heart Failure Cardiogenic Shock Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation Pediatric Heart Transplantation Heart-Lung and Lung Transplantation Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas) Kawasaki Disease Arteriovenous Fistulas Infantile Calcifications (GACI, IIAC, and ACDC) Systemic Hypertension Development of the Hematopoietic System The Anemias Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia ) Pearson's Syndrome Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) Anemia of Renal Disease Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias Physiologic Anemia of Infancy Megaloblastic Anemias Folic Acid Deficiency Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency Other Rare Megaloblastic Anemias Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia Other Microcytic Anemias Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias Hereditary Spherocytosis Hereditary Elliptocytosis Hereditary Stomatocytosis Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis Hemoglobinopathies Sickle Cell Disease Sickle Cell Trait (Hemoglobin AS) Other Hemoglobinopathies Unstable Hemoglobin Disorders Abnormal Hemoglobins with Increased Oxygen Affinity Abnormal Hemoglobins Causing Cyanosis Hereditary Methemoglobinemia Hereditary Methemoglobinemia with Deficiency of NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase Syndromes of Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH) Thalassemia Syndromes Enzymatic Defects Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Other Glycolytic Enzyme Deficiencies Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related Deficiencies Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors- Immune Hemolytic Anemias Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors Polycythemia Non-Clonal Polycythemia The Inherited Pancytopenias The Acquired Pancytopenias Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy Platelet Transfusions Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions Plasma Transfusions Risks of Blood Transfusions Hemostasis The Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Hemostasis Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders) Factor VIII or Factor IX Deficiency (Hemophilia A or B) Factor XI Deficiency (Hemophilia C) Deficiencies of the Contact Factors (Nonbleeding Disorders) Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Prothrombin (Factor II) Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined Deficiency of Factors V and VIII Fibrinogen Deficiency (Factor I) Factor XIII Deficiency (Fibrin-Stabilizing Factor or Transglutaminase Deficiency) Antiplasmin or Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Deficiency von Willebrand Disease Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis Thrombotic Disorders in Children Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Therapy Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency Liver Disease Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders Idiopathic (Autoimmune) Thrombocytopenic Purpura Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia Nonimmune Platelet Destruction Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome Sequestration Congenital Thrombocytopenic Syndromes Neonatal Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Due to Acquired Disorders Causing Decreased Production Platelet Function Disorders Acquired Disorders of Platelet Function Congenital Abnormalities of Platelet Function Disorders of the Blood Vessels Anatomy and Function of the Spleen Splenomegaly Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System Abnormalities of Lymphatic vessels Lymphadenopathy Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis) Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease) Castleman Disease Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer Principles of Cancer Diagnosis Principles of Cancer Treatment The Leukemias Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Down Syndrome and Acute Leukemia and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia Infant Leukemia Lymphoma Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Late Effects in Children and Adolescents with Lymphoma Brain Tumors in Childhood Neuroblastoma Neoplasms of the Kidney Wilms Tumor Other Pediatric Renal Tumors Soft Tissue Sarcomas Neoplasms of Bone Malignant Tumors of Bone Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Processes of Bone Retinoblastoma Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms Neoplasms of the Liver Benign Vascular Tumors Hemangiomas Lymphangiomas and Cystic Hygromas Rare Tumors Thyroid Tumors Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum Adrenal Tumors Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Other Histiocytoses Introduction to Glomerular Diseases Anatomy of the Glomerulus Glomerular Filtration Glomerular Diseases Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Hematuria Isolated Renal Disease Associated with Hematuria Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (Berger Nephropathy) Alport Syndrome Thin Basement Membrane Disease Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Membranous Nephropathy Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis Multisystem Disease Associated with Hematuria Chronic Infections Glomerulonephritis Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura Nephritis Goodpasture Disease Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome Toxic Nephropathy Cortical Necrosis Coagulopathies and Thrombocytopenia Tubulointerstitial Disease Associated with Hematuria Pyelonephritis Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Papillary Necrosis Acute Tubular Necrosis Vascular Disease Associated with Hematuria Vascular Abnormalities Renal Vein Thrombosis Sickle Cell Nephropathy Idiopathic Hypercalciuria Nephrocalcinosis Anatomic Abnormalities Associated with Hematuria Congenital Anomalies Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney disease Trauma Renal Tumors Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria Infectious Causes of Cystitis and Urethritis Hemorrhagic Cystitis Vigorous Exercise Clinical evaluation of the Child with Proteinuria Conditions Associated with Proteinuria Transient Proteinuria Orthostatic (Postural) Proteinuria Fixed Proteinuria Nephrotic Syndrome Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome Tubular Function Renal Tubular Acidosis Proximal (Type II) Renal Tubular Acidosis Distal (Type I) Renal Tubular Acidosis Hyperkalemic (Type IV) Renal Tubular Acidosis Rickets Associated with Renal Tubular Acidosis Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities Bartter Syndrome Gitelman Syndrome Other Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities Renal Failure Acute Kidney Injury Chronic Kidney Disease End-Stage Renal Disease Renal Transplantation Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys Urinary Tract Infections Vesicoureteral Reflux Obstruction of the Urinary Tract Anomalies of the Bladder Neuropathic Bladder Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract Urinary Lithiasis Gynecologic History and Physical Examination Vulvovaginitis Vaginal Bleeding in the Prepubertal Child Breast Concerns Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism Neoplasms and Adolescent Prevention Methods for Human Papillomavirus Vulvovaginal and Mullerian Anomalies Gynecologic Care for Girls with Special Needs Female Genital Mutilation Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Hypopituitarism Diabetes Insipidus Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes Physiology of Puberty Disorders of Pubertal Development Central Precocious Puberty Precocious Puberty Resulting from Organic Brain Lesions Precocious Puberty Following Irradiation of the Brain Syndrome of Precocious Puberty and Hypothyroidism Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Tumors McCune-Albright Syndrome (Precocious Puberty with Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia and Abnormal Pigmentation) Familial Male Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty Incomplete (Partial) Precocious Development Medicational Precocity Thyroid Development and Physiology Thyroid Hormone Studies Defects of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin Hypothyroidism Thyroiditis Goiter Congenital Goiter Intratracheal Goiter Endemic Goiter and Cretinism Acquired Goiter Thyrotoxicosis Graves Disease Congenital Hyperthyroidism Carcinoma of the Thyroid Solitary Thyroid Nodule Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism Hypoparathyroidism Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy) Hyperparathyroidism Other Causes of Hypercalcemia Physiology of the Adrenal Gland Histology and Embryology Adrenal Steroid Biosynthesis Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex Adrenal Steroid Hormone Actions Adrenal Medulla Adrenocortical Insufficiency Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Secondary and Tertiary Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal Insufficiency in the Critical Care Setting Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Corticosteroids Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11?-Hydroxylase Deficiency Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 3?-Hydroxysteriod Dehydrogenase Deficiency Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17-Hydroxylase Deficiency Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia Deficiency of P450 Oxidoreductase (Antley-Bixler Syndrome) Aldosterone Synthase Deficiency Glucocorticoid-Suppressible Hyperaldosteronism Adrenocortical Tumors and Masses Adrenal Carcinoma Adrenal Incidentaloma Adrenal Calcification Virilizing and Feminizing Adrenal Tumors Cushing Syndrome Primary Aldosteronism Pheochromocytoma Development and Function of the Gonads Hypofunction of the Testes Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Primary Hypogonadism) Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Secondary Hypogonadism) Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Tumors of the Testes Gynecomastia Hypofunction of the Ovaries Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Primary Hypogonadism) Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Secondary Hypogonadism) Pseudoprecocity Due to Lesions of the Ovary Disorders of Sex Development 46,XX DSD 46,XY DSD Ovotesticular DSD Diabetes Mellitus Classification Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Immune Mediated) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Other Specific Types of Diabetes Neurologic Evaluation Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System Neural Tube Defects Spina Bifida Occulta (Occult Spinal Dysraphism) Meningocele Myelomeningocele Encephalocele Anencephaly Disorders of Neuronal Migration Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Agenesis of the Cranial Nerves and Dysgenesis of the Posterior Fossa Microcephaly Hydrocephalus Craniosynostosis Deformational Plagiocephaly Seizures in Childhood Febrile Seizures Unprovoked Seizures "Partial Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes " Generalized Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes Mechanisms of Seizures Treatment of Seizures and Epilepsy Neonatal Seizures Status Epilepticus Reflex Seizures (Stimulus Precipitated Seizures) Nodding Syndrome Conditions that Mimic Seizures Headaches Migraine Secondary Headaches Tension-Type Headaches Neurocutaneous Syndromes Neurofibromatosis Tuberous Sclerosis Sturge-Weber Symdrome (SWS) Von Hippel-Lindau Disease Linear Nevus Syndrome PHACE Syndrome Incontinentia Pigmenti Movement Disorders Ataxias Chorea, Athetosis, Tremor Myoclonus Dystonia Encephalopathies Cerebral Palsy Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies Other Encephalopathies Autoimmune Encephalitis Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood Sphingolipidoses Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses Adrenoleukodystrophy Sialidosis Miscellaneous Disorders Demyelinating Disorders of the CNS Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neuromyelitis Optica Transverse Myelitis Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Pediatric Stroke Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS) Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis (CSVT) Spinal Cord Lesions Associated with Vascular Processes Hemorrhagic Stroke (HS) Differential Diagnosis of Stroke-Like Events CNS Vasculitis Central Nervous System Infections Acute Bacterial Meningitis Beyond the Neonatal Period Viral Meningoencephalitis Eosinophilic Meningitis Brain Abscess Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension / Pseudotumor Cerebri Spinal Cord Disorders Tethered Cord Diastematomyelia Syringomyelia Spinal Cord Tumors Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations Evaluation and Investigation Developmental Disorders of Muscle Myotubular Myopathy (Centrionuclear Myopathy) Congenital Muscle Fiber-Type Disproportion Nemaline Rod Myopathy Core Myopathies Myofibrillar Myopathies Brain Malformations and Muscle Development Amyoplasia Muscular Dysgenesis (Proteus Syndrome Myopathy) Benign Congenital Hypotonia Arthrogryposis Muscular Dystrophies Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy/Laminopathies Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Congenital Muscular Dystrophies Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies Metabolic Myopathies Periodic Paralyses (Potassium-Related) and other Muscle Channelopathies Malignant Hyperthermia Glycogenoses Mitochondrial Myopathies Lipid Myopathies Vitamin E Deficiency Myopathy Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons Myasthenia Gravis Spinal Muscular Atrophies Other Motor Neuron Diseases Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, HMSN Type IIa) Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Axonal Type) Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy and Dejerine-Sottas Disease (HMSN Type III) Roussy-Levy Syndrome Refsum Disease (Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy,Type IV) and Infantile Refsum Disease Fabry Disease Giant Axonal Neuropathy Tomaculous (Hypermyelinating) Neuropathy; Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies Leukodystrophies Toxic Neuropathies Autonomic Neuropathies Familial Dysautonomia Other Autonomic Neuropathies Guillain-Barre Syndrome Bell Palsy Growth and Development of the Eye Examination of the Eye Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation Disorders of Vision Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment Abnormalities of the Lids Disorders of the Lacrimal System Disorders of the Conjunctiva Abnormalities of the Cornea Abnormalities of the Lens Disorders of the Uveal Tract Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve Childhood Glaucoma Orbital Abnormalities Orbital Infections Injuries to the Eye General Considerations and Evaluation of the Ear Hearing Loss Congenital Malformations of the Ear External Otitis (Otitis Externa) Otitis Media Acute Mastoiditis The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone Morphology of the Skin Dermatologic Evaluation of the Patient Cutaenous Manifestations of Systemic Disease Multisystemic Medication Reactions Principles of Dermatologic Therapy Dermatologic Diseases of the Neonate Cutaneous Defects Ectodermal Dysplasias Vascular Disorders Cutaneous Nevi Hyperpigmented Lesions Hypopigmented Lesions Vesiculobullous Disorders Erythema Multiforme Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Mechanobullous Disorders Pemphigus Dermatitis Herpetiformis Linear Immunoglobulin A Dermatosis (Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood) Eczematous Disorders Contact Dermatitis Nummular Eczema Pityriasis Alba Lichen Simplex Chronicus Acute Palmoplantar Eczema (Dyshidrotic Eczema, Dyshidrosis, Pompholyx) Seborrheic Dermatitis Photosensitivity Diseases of the Epidermis Psoriasis Pityriasis Lichenoides Keratosis Pilaris Lichen Spinulosus Pityriasis Rosea Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris Darier Disease (Keratosis Follicularis) Lichen Nitidus Lichen Striatus Lichen Planus Porokeratosis Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome (Papular Acrodermatitis) Acanthosis Nigricans Disorders of Keratinization Diseases of the Dermis Mast Cell Activation Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Diseases of Subcutaneous Tissue Panniculitis and Erythema Nodosum Lipodystrophy Disorders of the Sweat Glands Disorders of Hair Disorders of the Nails Disorders of the Mucous Membranes Cutaneous Bacterial Infections Impetigo Subcutaneous Tissue Infections Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritter Disease) Ecthyma Other Cutaneous Bacterial Infections Cutaneous Fungal Infections Cutaneous Viral Infections Arthropod Bites and Infestations Arthropod Bites Scabies Pediculosis Seabather's Eruption Acne Tumors of the Skin Nutritional Dermatoses Growth and Development Evaluation of the Child The Foot and Toes Metatarsus Adductus Calcaneovalgus Feet Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot) Congenital Vertical Talus Hypermobile Pes Planus (Flexible Flatfeet) Tarsal Coalition Cavus Feet Osteochondroses/Apophysitis Puncture Wounds of the Foot Toe Deformities Painful Foot Shoes Torsional and Angular Deformities Normal Limb Development Evaluation Torsional Deformities Coronal Plane Deformities Congenital Angular Deformities of the Tibia and Fibula Leg-Length Discrepancy The Knee Discoid Lateral Meniscus Popliteal Cysts (Baker Cysts) Osteochondritis Dissecans Osgood-Schlatter Disease and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Patellofemoral Instability Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture The Hip Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Transient Monoarticular Synovitis (Toxic Synovitis) Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis The Spine Idiopathic Scoliosis Congenital Scoliosis Neuromuscular Scoliosis, Genetic Syndromes, and Compensatory Scoliosis Kyphosis (Round-Back) Back Pain in Children Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis Spine Infection Intervertebral Disk Herniation/Slipped Vertebral Apophysis Tumors The Neck Torticollis Klippel-Feil Syndrome Cervical Anomalies and Instabilities The Upper Limb Arthrogryposis Common Fractures Unique Characteristics of Pediatric Fractures Pediatric Fracture Patterns Upper Extremity Fractures Fractures of the Lower Extremity Operative Treatment Complications of Fractures in Children Osteomyelitis Septic Arthritis Epidemiology and Prevention of Injuries Management of Musculoskeletal Injury Growth Plate Injuries Shoulder Injuries Elbow Injuries Low Back Injuries Hip and Pelvis Injuries Knee Injuries Lower Leg Pain: Shin Splints, Stress Fractures, and Chronic Compartent Syndrome Ankle Injuries Foot Injuries Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion) Cervical Spine Injuries Heat Injuries Female Athletes: Menstrual Problems and the Risk of Osteopenia Performance-Enhancing Aids Specific Sports and Associated Injuries General Considerations Disorders Involving Cartilage Matrix Proteins Disorders Involving Transmembrane Receptors Disorders Involving Ion Transporters Disorders Involving Transcription Factors Disorders Involving Defective Bone Resorption Disorders for Which Defects Are Poorly Understood or Unknown Osteogenesis Imperfecta Marfan Syndrome Bone Structure, Growth, and Hormonal Regulation Hypophosphatasia Hyperphosphatasia Osteoporosis Evaluation of the Child for Rehabilitative Services Rehabilitation for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic Crisis Management Spasticity Birth Brachial Plexus Palsy Meningomyelocele (Spina Bifida) Ambulation Assistance Health and Wellness for Children with Disabilities Home Mechanical Ventilation and Technology Dependence Overview of Environmental Health and Children Biologic Effects of Radiation on Children Chemical Pollutants Tobacco Heavy Metal Intoxication Lead Poisoning Nonbacterial Food Poisoning Mushroom Poisoning Solanine Poisoning Seafood Poisoning Melamine Poisoning Biologic and Chemical Terrorism Mass Psychogenic Illness Animal and Human Bites Rat Bite Fever Monkeypox Envenomations Laboratory Testing in Infants and Children Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests ChapTitle Overview of Pediatrics Child Health Disparities Racism Global Health Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children Safety in Healthcare for Children Ethics in Pediatric Care Pediatric Palliative Care Domestic and International Adoption Foster and Kinship Care Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care Maximizing Children's Health: Screening, Anticipatory Guidance, and Counseling Injury Control Impact of Violence on Children Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Violence Media Violence Effects of War on Children Child Trafficking Abused and Neglected Children Sexual Abuse Medical Child Abuse (Factitious Disorder by Proxy, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy) Strategies for Health Behavior Change Developmental and Behavioral Theories Positive Parenting and Support Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development The Newborn The First Year Infant Crying and Colic The Second Year The Preschool Years Middle Childhood Adolescence Assessment of Growth Developmental and Behavioral Screening and Surveillance Childcare Loss, Separation, and Bereavement Sleep Medicine Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing Psychopharmacology Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders Rumination and Pica Rumination Disorder Pica Motor Disorders and Habits Tic Disorders Stereotypic Movement Disorders Anxiety Disorders Mood Disorders Major and Other Depressive Disorders Bipolar and Related Disorders Suicide and Attempted Suicide Eating Disorders Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders Tantrums and Breath-holding spells Lying, Stealing and Truancy Aggression Self-injurious behavior Childhood Psychoses Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders Psychosis Associated with Epilepsy Catatonia in Children and Adolescents Acute Phobic Hallucinations of Childhood Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Dyslexia Math and Writing Disabilities Math Disabilities Writing Disabilities Language Development and Communication Disorders Child-Onset Fluency Disorder Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability Intellectual Disability with Regression Autism Spectrum Disorder Nutritional Requirements Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents Nutrition, Food Security, and Health Refeeding Syndrome Failure to Thrive Overweight and Obesity Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Niacin (Vitamin B3) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Biotin Folate Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess Vitamin E Deficiency Vitamin K Deficiency Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders Composition of Body Fluids Regulation of Osmolality and Volume Sodium Potassium Magnesium Phosphorus Acid-Base Balance Maintenance and Replacement Therapy Deficit Therapy Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics Principles of Drug Therapy Anesthesia and Perioperative Care Anesthetic Neurotoxicity Sedation and Procedural Pain Pediatric Pain Management Poisoning Complementary Therapies, and Integrative Medicine Emergency Medical Services for Children Interfacility Transport of the Seriously Ill or Injured Pediatric Patient Outcomes and Risk-Adjustment Principles Applicable to the Developing World Triage of the Acutely Ill Child Resuscitation Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma Spinal Cord Injuries in Children Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization Brain Death Syncope POTS Shock Respiratory Distress and Failure Mechanical Ventilation Long-term Mechanical Ventilation Altitude-associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness) Drowning and Submersion Injury Burn injuries Cold Injuries Integration of Genetics into Pediatric Practice Genetic Counseling Management and Treatment of Genetic Disorders The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine The Human Genome Patterns of Genetic Transmission Cytogenetics Methods of Chromosome Analysis Down Syndrome and Other Abnormalities of Chromosome Number Abnormalities of Chromosome Structure Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Fragile Chromosome Sites Mosaicism Chromosome Instability Syndromes Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting Genetics of Common Disorders Major Genetic Approaches to the Study of Common Pediatric Disorders Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids Phenylalanine Tyrosine Methionine Cysteine/Cystine Tryptophan Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Related Organic Acidemias Glycine Serine Proline Glutamic Acid Genetic Disorders of Neurotransmitters Urea Cycle and Hyperammonemia (Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine) Histidine Lysine N-Acetylaspartic Acid (Canavan Disease) Defects in Metabolism of Lipids Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid ss-Oxidation Disorders of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport Lipidoses (Lysosomal Storage Disorders) Mucolipidoses Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates Glycogen Storage Diseases Defects in Galactose Metabolism Defects in Fructose Metabolism Defects in Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism Associated with Lactic Acidosis Defects in Pentose Metabolism Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation Congenital Disorders of Glycosolation Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders Mucopolysaccharidoses Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome The Porphyrias Hypoglycemia Overview of Mortality and Morbidity The Newborn Infant History in Neonatal Pediatrics Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant Routine Newborn Care Circumcision Parent-Infant Bonding High-Risk Pregnancies The Fetus Fetal Growth and Maturity Fetal Distress Maternal Disease and the Fetus Maternal Medication and Toxin Exposure and the Fetus Teratogens Radiation Intrauterine Diagnosis of Fetal Disease Treatment and Prevention of Fetal Disease Fetal Intervention and Surgery The High-Risk Infant Multiple Gestation Pregnancies Extreme and Very Preterm Infants Moderate and Late Pre-Term Infants Term and Post-Term Infants Follow-up of High-Risk Infants after Discharge Infant Transport Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period Hyperthermia Neontal Cold Injury Edema Hypocalcemia (Tetany) Hypermanganazemia Nervous System Disorders The Cranium Traumatic, Epidural, Subdural, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Intracranial-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia Hypoxia-Ischemic Encephalopathy Spine and Spinal Cord Peripheral Nerve Injuries Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies Respiratory Tract Disorders Transition to Pulmonary Respiration Apnea Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease) BPD PDA Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn Aspiration of Foreign Material (Fetal Aspiration Syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonia) Meconium Aspiration Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (Persistent Fetal Circulation) Diaphragmatic Hernia Foramen of Morgagni Hernia Paraesophageal Hernia Eventration Extrapulmonary Air Leaks (Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, Pneumopericardium) Pulmonary Hemorrhage Digestive System Disorders Meconium Ileus, Peritonitis, and Intestinal Obstruction Necrotizing Enterocolitis Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Kernicterus Blood Disorders Anemia in the Newborn Infant Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis) Plethora in the Newborn Infant (Polycythemia) Hemorrhage in the Newborn Infant The Umbilicus Abstinence Syndromes Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal) Maternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Neonatal Behavioral Syndromes Fetal Alcohol Exposure The Endocrine System Infants of Diabetic Mothers Dysmorphology Epidemiology of Infections Healthcare?Associated Infections (HAI) Congenital Infections Adolescent Physical and Social Development Gender and Sexual Identity Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents Transgender Care The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems Delivery of Health Care to Adolescents Legal Issues Screening Procedures Transitioning to Adult Care Violent Behavior Substance Abuse Alcohol Tobacco and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Marijuana Inhalants Hallucinogens Cocaine Amphetamines Stimulant Abuse and Diversion Opiates Bath salts and other drugs of abuse The Breast Menstrual Problems Amenorrhea Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Dysmenorrhea Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Contraception Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Other Progestin-only Methods Combined Hormonal Contraceptives Emergency Contraception (EC) Dual Protection Other Barrier Methods Other Methods Adolescent Pregnancy Adolescent Sexual Assault Sexually Transmitted Infections Chronic Overlapping Pain Syndromes Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency Lymphocyte Development and Function Primary Defects of Antibody Production Treatment of B-Cell Defects Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity Immune Deficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Combined Immunodeficiency Defects of Innate Immunity Treatment of Cellular or Combined Immunodeficiency Immune Dysregulation with Autoimmunity or Lymphoproliferation Neutrophils Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells Eosinophils Disorders of Phagocyte Function Leukopenia Leukocytosis The Complement System Disorders of the Complement System Evaluation of the Complement System Genetic Deficiencies of Complement Components Deficiencies of Plasma, Membrane, or Serosal Complement Control Proteins Secondary Disorders of Complement Treatment of Complement Disorders Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Veno-occlusive Disease Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease Diagnosis of Allergic Disease Allergic Rhinitis Childhood Asthma Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema) Insect Allergy Ocular Allergies Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema Anaphylaxis Serum Sickness Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods Adverse Reactions to Drugs Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides Reactive and Post-Infectious Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Neonatal Lupus Juvenile Dermatomyositis Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon Behcet Disease Sjoegren Syndrome The Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases Amyloidosis Sarcoidosis Kawasaki Disease Vasculitis Syndromes Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura Takayasu Arteritis Polyarteritis Nodosa and Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa ANCA-associated vasculitis Other Vasculitic Syndromes Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes Growing Pains Small Fiber Polyneuropathy Fibromyalgia Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Erythromelalgia Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis Diagnostic Microbiology The Microbiome and Pediatric Health Immunization Practices International Immunization Practices Infection Prevention and Control Childcare and Communicable Diseases Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally Fever Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate (0-2 mos) Fever in the Older Child Fever of Unknown Origin Infections in Immunocompromised Persons Infections Occurring with Primary Immunodeficiencies Infections Occuring with Acquired Immunodeficiencies Prevention of Infection in Immunocompromised Persons Infection As

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