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Goldman-Cecil Medicine

titolo Goldman-Cecil Medicine
sottotitolo 2-Volume Set
Autori ,
argomento
Editore Elsevier - Health Sciences Division
Formato
libro Libro: Hardcover
Lingua inglese
Pagine 3040
Pubblicazione 2023
Numero edizione 27
ISBN 9780323930383
Carte Cultura Carta del docente Acquistabile con Carte culturaCarta del docente
 
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For more than 95 years, Goldman-Cecil Medicine has been the authoritative source for internal medicine and the care of adult patients. Every chapter is written by acclaimed experts who, with the oversight of our editors, provide definitive, unbiased advice on the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of common and uncommon conditions, always guided by an understanding of the epidemiology and pathobiology, as well as the latest medical literature. 

But Goldman-Cecil Medicine is not just a textbook. It is designed to optimize electronic searches that will rapidly take you to exactly the information you are seeking. Throughout the lifetime of each edition, periodic updates continually include the newest information from a wide range of journals. Furthermore, Goldman-Cecil Medicine is available for all users of ClinicalKey, Elsevier’s full library of subspecialty textbooks that can be accessed by readers who may want even more in-depth information. 

Key Features
  • More than 400 chapters authored by a veritable "Who’s Who" of modern medicine 
  • A practical, templated organization with an emphasis on up-to-date, evidence-based references 
  • New chapters on Population Health, Effects of Climate Change on Health, Bradycardias, Transgender Medicine, Whipple Disease, COVID-19 Virology and Pathobiology, COVID-19 Epidemiology/Clinical Manifestations/Diagnosis/Community Prevention, COVID-19 Treatment and Vaccination, Polyomaviruses, and more 
  • Thousands of algorithms, figures, and tables that make its information readily accessible 
  • Over 100 supplementary videos, heart sounds, and key references 
  • Available in print and on a variety of electronic devices 
  • Continuously updated by Lee Goldman, MD 
  • An eBook version is included with purchase. The eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references, with the ability to search, customize your content, make notes and highlights, and have content read aloud. 
 

Indice testuale

Volume I

Section I. Social and Ethical Issues in Medicine

I. SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN MEDICINE
1. Approach to Medicine, the Patient, and the Medical Profession: Medicine as a Learned and Humane Profession
Approach to Medicine
Approach to the Patient
Approach to the Medical Profession
2. Bioethics in the Practice of Medicine
Physician-Patient Relationship: Informed Consent
Termination of Medical Interventions
Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia
Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources
Financial Conflicts of Interest
Future Directions
3. Palliative Care
Palliative Care Domains
4. Disparities in Health and Health Care
Definitions of Health Disparity and Health Equity
Demographic Changes in the U.S. Population
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Outcomes
Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Outcomes
Insurance Coverage and Access to Care
Quality of Care
Clinical Approaches to Reduce Disparities
5. Global Health
Life Expectancy
Leading Causes of Deaths
Leading Causes of Disabilities
Leading Underlying Risk Factors
Changing Patterns of Disease
The Global Health Challenge

Section II. Principles of Evaluation and Management
II. PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT
6. History and Physical Examination
Overview
Medical History
Physical Examination
Summarizing the Findings for the Patient
Future Directions
7. Approach to the Patient with Abnormal Vital Signs
The Importance of Vital Signs
Measuring Vital Signs
Role of Vital Signs in Management of the Patient
8. Statistical Interpretation of Data for Clinical Decision Making
Incidence and Prevalence
Interpreting Data
Data and Their Characteristics
Hypothesis Testing
Causality
Statistical Approaches and Challenges
Using Data for Clinical Decisions
9. Measuring Health and Health Care
How Are Health and Health Care Measured?
Why Measure Health and Health Care?
Selecting Measures Based on Evidence
Selecting Measures: Which Measures Are Right for What Purpose?
Measuring Health and Health Care as Parts of a System
10. Quality, Safety, and Value
Quality
Patient Safety
Quality and Safety During a Pandemic
Value: Connecting Safety and Quality to Cost
11. Population Health
Population Health Management
Beyond Population Health Management to Population Health

Section III. Preventive and Environmental Issues
III. PREVENTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
12. The Preventive Health Visit
History and Risk Assessment
Screening for Early Disease or Asymptomatic Risk Factors
Behavioral Interventions
Immunizations
Preventive Medications and Supplements
Future Issues
13. Diet and Nutrition
Dietary Requirements
Nutrition’s Influence on Mortality and Morbidity
Translating Evidence into Dietary Change
14. Physical Activity
15. Immunization
General Characteristics of Immunizations
Individual Immunobiologics
Vaccines Intended Primarily for International Travelers
Vaccines for Possible Bioterrorism Agents
16. Principles of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Occupational and Environmental Medicine Regulatory Environment
Approach to the Patient
Clinical Implications
Occupational Safety Standards
Environmental Medicine
Wellness and Resiliency
Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Management
Role of the Individual Clinician
17. Effects of Climate Change on Health
How Climate Change Affects Health
Health Care Professionals and Climate Change
18. Radiation Injury
Ionizing Radiation
Non-Ionizing Radiation Injury
19. Bioterrorism
Epidemiologic Clues
Agents of Concern
Anthrax
Pathobiology and Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Prevention
Prognosis
Smallpox
Plague
Tularemia
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
Botulism
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Response to a Bioterrorism Attack
20. Chronic Poisoning: Trace Metals and Others
Lead Toxicity
Mercury Toxicity
Arsenic Toxicity
Cadmium Toxicity
Syndromes Specific to Other Toxic Metals
Section IV. Age-Specific and Geriatric Medicine

IV. AGE-SPECIFIC AND GERIATRIC MEDICINE
21. Adolescent Medicine
Normal Physical Growth and Development
Normal Psychosocial Development
Vital Statistics
Approach to the Adolescent Patient
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Obesity
Mental Health
Eating Disorders
SUBSTANCE USE AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS
Chronic Illness and Transition
22. Epidemiology of Aging
Demography
Disease and Disability in Older Adults
Healthy Aging
23. Geriatric Assessment
Rationale
Function
The Built and Social Environments
Prognosis
Goals and Preferences
Preventive Services
Geriatric Assessment In Practice
24. Common Clinical Sequelae of Aging
Effects of Aging on Specific Organs and Systems

Section V. Clinical Pharmacology
V. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
25. Principles of Drug Therapy
Pharmacokinetic Principles
Clinical Application of Pharmacokinetic Principles
Drug Monitoring as a Guide to Therapy
Adjustments of Drug Dose With Disease
Approach to Drug Overdose
Drug Use in Elderly Patients
Interactions among Drugs
Adverse Reactions to Drugs
Usefulness of Genomic Data
26. Pain
27. Biology of Addiction
Risk Factors for Addiction
Reward Circuitry: The Neural Substrate of Addiction
Properties of Addictive Drugs
Drug-Induced Neural Plasticity Relevant to Addiction
28. Immunomodulatory Drugs
Glucocorticoids
Immunomodulatory Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Purine and Pyrimidine Inhibitors
Immunophilin-Binding Agents, Including Calcineurin Inhibitors
Alkylating Agents
29. Biologic Agents and Signaling Inhibitors
Biologic Agents
Conclusion
30. Complementary and Integrative Medicine
Use of Integrative and Complementary Treatments
Overview

Section VI. Genetics
VI. GENETICS
31. Principles of Genetics
Genetic Architecture of Disease
High-Penetrance Monogenic or Chromosomal Disorders
Monogenic Versions of Common Disorders
Complex, Multifactorial Disorders
Pharmacogenetic Testing
32. Clinical Genomics—Genome Structure and Variation
Clinical Genomics
Gene
Genomic Variation in Humans
Genetic Test Reports
Genomics and Genetics as a Normal Part of Medicine
33. Applications of Molecular Technologies to Clinical Medicine
Molecular Technologies Along the Continuum from Health to Disease
Genomes, Disease, and Treatment
The Expressed Genome
Implementing Precision Medicine in Clinical Practice
34. Regenerative Medicine, Cell Therapy, and Gene Therapy
Cell Therapy
Gene Therapy
Genome Editing

Section VII. Principles of Immunology and Inflammation
VII. PRINCIPLES OF IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION
35. The Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems
The Immune System in Host Defense
Cellular Elements of the Innate Immune System
Principles of Innate Immune System Activation: Recognition of Immune Stimuli and Generation of Effector Function
Cellular Elements of the Adaptive Immune System
Principles of Adaptive Immune System Activation: Recognition of Antigen and Generation of Effector Function
Contribution of the Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Pathogenesis of Disease
36. Tissue Injury and Repair
The Inflammatory Response: Innate Immune Mechanisms
The Inflammatory Response: Adaptive Immune Mechanisms
Tissue Repair and Resolution of Inflammation
37. Complement System in Disease
Activation of Complement
Complement Inhibitors
38. Transplantation Immunology
Antigens in Transplantation
Mechanisms of Rejection and Graft-versus-Host Disease
Strategies to Prevent Graft-versus-Host Disease
Strategies to Prevent Allograft Rejection

Section VIII. Heart Diseases
VIII. HEART DISEASES
39. Approach to the Patient with Possible Cardiovascular Disease
Using the History to Detect Cardiovascular Symptoms
Physical Examination for Detection of Signs of Cardiovascular Disease
Approach to therapy
40. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease
Burden in the United States
Global Burden
Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
41. Cardiac and Circulatory Function
Structure of the Heart
Anatomy of the Heart
Physiology of the Heart and Circulatory Control
Cardiovascular Responses to Stressors
Impaired Circulatory Function: Atherosclerosis
42. Electrocardiography
Normal Function and Electrocardiogram
Approach to Interpreting the Electrocardiogram
43. Echocardiography
Echocardiographic Imaging
Doppler Echocardiography
Echocardiographic Approaches
Cardiac Function Measurements
The Echocardiographic Examination
Integrating the Echocardiographic and Clinical Findings
44. Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging
Radiography of the Heart
Nuclear Cardiology
Cardiac Computed Tomography
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging
45. Heart Failure: Epidemiology, Pathobiology, and Diagnosis
Consequences of Misdiagnosis
46. Heart Failure: Treatment and Prognosis
Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure
Stages of Heart Failure
47. Diseases of the Myocardium and Endocardium
Myocardial Disease
Diseases of the Endocardium
Cardiac Tumors
48. Principles of Electrophysiology
Basic Concepts
Ionic Basis of Cardiac Electrophysiology
Molecular Basis of Cardiac Electrophysiology
Mechanisms of ARRHYTHMOGENESIS
49. Approach to the Patient with Suspected Arrhythmia
50. Cardiac Arrest and Life-Threatening Arrhythmias
51. Bradycardias and Conduction System Delays
Bradycardias
Bradyarrhythmias
Specific Bradyarrhythmias
52. Supraventricular Ectopy and Tachyarrhythmias
Supraventricular Arrhythmias with a Normal Rate
Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias
53. Ventricular Arrhythmias
54. Electrophysiologic Procedures and Surgery
Transthoracic Cardioversion and Defibrillation
Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices
Catheter Ablation
Arrhythmia Surgery
Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage
55. Congenital Heart Disease in Adults
Simple Lesions
Specific Complex Lesions
56. Angina Pectoris and Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease
Other Anginal Syndromes
57. Acute Coronary Syndrome: Unstable Angina and Non–ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
58. ST-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction and Complications of Myocardial Infarction
59. Interventional Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Arteriography To Assess Coronary Stenosis
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Coronary Angioplasty Versus Medical Therapy
Coronary Artery Surgery
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
60. Valvular Heart Disease
Approach To The Patient With Valvular Heart Disease
Aortic Stenosis
Mitral Stenosis
Primary (Organic) Mitral Regurgitation
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Secondary (Functional) Mitral Regurgitation
Aortic Regurgitation
Tricuspid Regurgitation
Pulmonic Stenosis
Choices among Prosthetic Valves
Postoperative Care of Patients with Substitute Heart Valves
61. Infective Endocarditis
62. Pericardial Diseases
Acute Pericarditis
Pericardial Effusion and Tamponade
Pericardial Constriction
Specific Forms of Pericardial Disease

Section IX. Vascular Medicine
IX. VASCULAR MEDICINE
63. Diseases of the Aorta
Aortic Aneurysm
Acute Aortic Syndromes
Aortic Vasculitis
64. Arterial Hypertension
Goal 1: Accurate Measurement of Blood Pressure
Goal 2: Cardiovascular Risk Stratification
Goal 3: Identification and Treatment of Secondary (Identifiable) Causes of Hypertension
Lifestyle Modification
Medical Therapy
Antihypertensive Drug Interactions
Evidence-Based Management of Hypertension
Incidental Blood Pressure Elevations in the Emergency Department
65. Atherosclerotic Peripheral Arterial Disease
66. Other Peripheral Arterial Diseases
Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome
Cystic Adventitial Disease of the Lower Extremity Arteries
Endofibrosis of the Iliac Artery
Fibromuscular Dysplasia
Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease)
Livedo Reticularis and Livedo Racemosa
Atheromatous Embolization
Thermal Disorders
67. Thrombotic Disorders: Hypercoagulable States
Primary Hypercoagulable States
Secondary Hypercoagulable States
68. Venous Thrombosis and Embolism
Long-Term Complications of VTE
Venous Thrombosis of the Upper Extremities
Superficial Vein Thrombosis
Prevention of VTE
Nonthrombotic Pulmonary Embolism
69. Pulmonary Hypertension
70. Antithrombotic and Antiplatelet Therapy
ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY
ANTIPLATELET THERAPY
FIBRINOLYTIC AND ANTITHROMBIN AGENTS

Section X. Respiratory Diseases
X. RESPIRATORY DISEASES
71. Approach to the Patient with Respiratory Disease
Approach to the Patient with Cough
Approach to the Patient with Wheezing
Approach to the Patient with Dyspnea
Approach to the Patient with Hemoptysis
72. Imaging in Pulmonary Disease
Imaging of the Lungs, Mediastinum, and Chest Wall
Imaging of the Mediastinum
73. Respiratory Testing and Function
Spirometry
Other Tests of Ventilation
Reference Equations
Lung Volumes
Diffusing Capacity
Maximal Respiratory Pressures
Interpretation of Lung Function Tests
Provocative Testing
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Tests
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Complex Disorders
Pulmonary Function in Obesity
74. Disorders of Ventilatory Control
Hypoventilation Syndromes
75. Asthma
76. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Acute Exacerbations of COPD
77. Cystic Fibrosis
78. Bronchiectasis, Atelectasis, and Cavitary or Cystic Lung Diseases
Bronchiectasis
Atelectasis
Cavitary Lung Diseases
Congenital Cystic Diseases of the Thorax
Acquired Cystic Lung Diseases
79. Alveolar Filling Disorders
Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
Acute Interstitial Pneumonia
Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage
Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma and Lepidic Predominant Nonmucinous Adenocarcinoma (Formerly Called Bronchioloalveolar Cell Carcinoma)
80. Interstitial Lung Disease
Specific Types of Interstitial Lung Disease
81. Occupational Lung Disease
Specific Occupational Lung Disorders
Occupational Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
Chronic Beryllium Disease
Asbestos-Related Diseases
Silicosis and Other Pneumoconioses
Acute Febrile Syndromes
Occupational Lung Cancer
82. Physical and Chemical Injuries of the Lung
Submersion Incidents: Drowning
Diseases of High Altitude
Decompression Illness: Decompression Sickness, Barotrauma, and Arterial Gas Embolism
Inhalation Injuries
Oxygen Toxicity
Lung Injury
83. Sarcoidosis
84. Acute Bronchitis and Tracheitis
85. Overview of Pneumonia
Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in the Immunocompetent Host
Aspiration Pneumonia
Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Hosts
86. Diseases of the Diaphragm, Chest Wall, Pleura, and Mediastinum
Diaphragm
Chest Wall
Pleura
Mediastinum
87. Interventional and Surgical Approaches to Lung Disease
Bronchoscopic procedures
Surgical Procedures
Procedures for emphysema
Lung Transplantation

Section XI. Critical Care Medicine
XI. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
88. Approach to the Patient in a Critical Care Setting
The Intensivist-Led Interprofessional Team
Fluid Resuscitation and Acute Kidney Injury
Oxygen Intubation, Sedation, Analgesia
Long-Term Outcomes for Survivors
Applying Evidence to Prevent Complications of Critical Illness
Predictions, Preferences, and Palliative Care
89. Respiratory Monitoring in Critical Care
Physical Examination
Systemic Arterial Blood Gas Analysis
Pulse Oximetry
Carbon Dioxide Monitoring: Capnometry and Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement
Arterial Oxygen Content and Systemic Oxygen Delivery
Measuring Ventilation: Minute Ventilation and Alveolar Ventilation
Measuring Carbon Dioxide Production
Measuring Respiratory Compliance
Measuring Respiratory Drive
Measuring Respiratory Muscle Strength
Measuring Work of Breathing
90. Acute Respiratory Failure
Specific Acute Respiratory Failure Syndromes
91. Mechanical Ventilation
Positive-Pressure Ventilation
Complications of Mechanical Ventilation
Specific Common Treatment Scenarios
Discontinuation of Mechanical Ventilation
92. Approach to the Patient with Shock
93. Cardiogenic Shock
94. Shock Syndromes Related to Sepsis
95. Disorders Due to Heat and Cold
Temperature Regulation
Heat Illness
Cold Injury
Therapeutic Hypothermia and Hyperthermia
96. Acute Poisoning
97. Medical Aspects of Trauma and Burns
Rehabilitation of the Injured Patient
98. Envenomation, Bites, and Stings
Specific Envenomation Syndromes
Arthropods
Insects
Marine Animals
99. Rhabdomyolysis

Section XII. Renal and Genitourinary Diseases
XII. RENAL AND GENITOURINARY DISEASES
100. Approach to the Patient with Renal Disease
Specific Renal Syndromes
101. Structure and Function of the Kidneys
The Kidney Regulates Extracellular Fluid Volume by Regulating Sodium Content
The Kidney Controls Body Fluid Osmolarity by Regulating Water Content
The Kidney Regulates Plasma pH by Regulating HCO3− Content
The Kidney Regulates Plasma Potassium by Secretion and the Control of Extracellular pH
The Kidney Regulates Plasma PO4 and Ca2+ by Excretion and by Synthesizing Vitamin D3
102. Disorders of Sodium and Water
Disorders of Extracellular Fluid Volume
Disorders of Tonicity of Body Fluids: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia
Polyuria
103. Potassium Disorders
104. Acid-Base Disorders
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
105. Disorders of Magnesium and Phosphorus
Magnesium Metabolism
Magnesium Deficiency
Hypermagnesemia
Phosphorus Metabolism
Hypophosphatemia
Hyperphosphatemia
106. Acute Kidney Injury
107. Glomerular Disorders and Nephrotic Syndromes
Glomerular Disorders
The Nephrotic Syndrome
Glomerulonephritis and the Nephritic Syndrome
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
Glomerular Diseases Associated With Genetic Defects
Other Glomerular Diseases
108. Interstitial Nephritis
Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Chronic Interstitial Nephritis
109. Diabetes and the Kidney
110. Vascular Disorders of the Kidney
Renal Artery Stenosis
Atheromatous Embolization of The Renal Arterial System
Renal Infarction
Renal Vein Thrombosis
111. Nephrolithiasis
112. Cystic Kidney Diseases
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease
Nephronophthisis
Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease (Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease)
Medullary Sponge Kidney
Other Inherited Cystic Syndromes
Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease
113. Hereditary Nephropathies and Developmental Renal/Urinary Abnormalities
Hereditary Nephropathies
Development of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
114. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatitis
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Prostatitis
115. Urinary Incontinence
116. Chronic Kidney Disease
117. Treatment of Irreversible Renal Failure
Dialysis
Renal Transplantation

Section XIII. Gastrointestinal Diseases
XIII. GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES
118. Approach to the Patient with Gastrointestinal Disease
General Approach to Patients with Gastrointestinal Signs and Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Gas and Bloating
Involuntary Weight Loss
Nausea and Vomiting
Constiption
Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Fecal Incontinence
Other Gastrointestinal Complaints
119. Diagnostic Imaging Procedures in Gastroenterology
Radiographic Plain Films
Fluoroscopy
Ultrasound
Computed Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nuclear Medicine
Interventional Procedures
120. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Diagnostic Endoscopy
121. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Obscure and Occult Gastrointestinal Bleeding
122. Disorders of Gastrointestinal Motility
Diseases of Slow Transit Through the Stomach and Small Bowel
Diseases of Rapid Transit Through Stomach and Small Bowel
Colonic Motility Disorders
123. Irritable Bowel and Functional Upper Gastrointestinal Syndromes
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Functional Dyspepsia
Functional Heartburn
Functional Chest Pain of Likely Esophageal Origin
124. Diseases of the Esophagus
Normal Anatomy and Physiology
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Esophagitis
Esophageal Motor Disorders
Structural Abnormalities
The Esophagus in Systemic Diseases
Esophageal Infections
Miscellaneous Esophageal Conditions
125. Acid Peptic Disease
126. Approach to the Patient with Diarrhea and Malabsorption
Acute Diarrhea
Persistent Acute Diarrhea
Chronic Diarrhea
Specific Causes of Chronic Diarrhea
Congenital Malabsorption and Diarrhea
Watery Diarrhea
True Secretory Diarrheas
Inflammatory Diarrheas
Radiation Enteritis
Protein-Losing Gastroenteropathy
Miscellaneous Diseases
127. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
128. Inflammatory and Anatomic Diseases of the Intestine, Peritoneum, Mesentery, and Omentum
Congenital Structural Abnormalities
Acquired Structural Disorders
Inflammation of the Intestine and Colon
Peritoneal Disorders
Diseases of the Mesentery and Omentum
129. Vascular Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Intestinal Ischemia
Vasculitis
Vascular Anomalies and Disorders
Hepatic and Splenic Vascular Disease
130. Pancreatitis
Acute Pancreatitis
Chronic Pancreatitis
131. Diseases of the Rectum and Anus
Anatomy
Specific Anorectal Conditions

Section XIV. Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System
XIV. DISEASES OF THE LIVER AND BILIARY SYSTEM
132. Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease
History
Risk Factors for Liver Disease
Assessing Duration of Liver Disease
Review of Other Organ Systems
Family History
Physical Examination
Diagnostic Studies (Table 132-1)
Approach to New-Onset Ascites
Approach to a Hepatic Mass
Approach to the Patient With Inherited Liver Disease
133. Approach to the Patient with Jaundice or Abnormal Liver Tests
Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia
Approach to the Patient with Hyperbilirubinemia
Liver and Biliary Tract Disease
Approach to the Patient with Jaundice or Abnormal Liver Tests
134. Acute Viral Hepatitis
General Features of Acute Viral Hepatitis
135. Chronic Viral and Autoimmune Hepatitis
Chronic Hepatitis B
Chronic Hepatitis C
Chronic Hepatitis D
Chronic Hepatitis E
Autoimmune Hepatitis
Cryptogenic Chronic Liver Disease
136. Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Direct/Intrinsic Hepatotoxicity
Idiosyncratic Hepatotoxicity
Indirect Hepatotoxicity
137. Bacterial, Parasitic, Fungal, and Granulomatous Liver Diseases
Infections of the Liver
Granulomatous Diseases of the Liver
138. Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
139. Cirrhosis and Its Sequelae
140. Liver Failure and Transplantation
Liver Failure
Liver Transplantation
141. Diseases of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts
Gallbladder
Bile Ducts

Section XV. Hematologic Diseases
XV. HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES
142. Hematopoiesis and Hematopoietic Growth Factors
Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells
Hematopoietic Cell Expansion: Hematopoietic Growth Factors
Clinical Uses of Hematopoietic Cells and Growth Factors
143. The Peripheral Blood Smear
Reasons for Performing a Blood Smear
The Blood Smear in the Differential Diagnosis of Anemia
Assessment of Thrombocytopenia, Thrombocytosis, and Platelet Morphology
Leukocytosis and Leukopenia
Leukemias and Lymphomas
The Incidental Detection of Clinically Significant Abnormalities
Conclusion
144. Approach to the Anemias
Anemias Associated with Increased Reticulocyte Production
Anemias Associated with Inadequate Reticulocyte Response (Underproduction Anemias)
Specific Anemia Syndromes
145. Microcytic and Hypochromic Anemias
Iron Deficiency
Anemia of Chronic Disease (Anemia of Inflammation)
Sideroblastic Anemia
146. Autoimmune and Intravascular Hemolytic Anemias
Immune Hemolytic Anemias
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions
Other Causes of Intravascular Hemolysis
147. Hemolytic Anemias: Red Blood Cell Membrane and Metabolic Defects
The Erythrocyte Membrane
Erythrocyte Metabolism
148. The Thalassemias
Unstable Hemoglobinopathies
149. Sickle Cell Disease and Other Hemoglobinopathies
Sickle Cell Disease
Other Hemoglobinopathies
150. Megaloblastic Anemias
151. Aplastic Anemia and Related Bone Marrow Failure States
Idiopathic Aplastic Anemia
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia
Pure Red Cell Aplasia
Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes
152. Polycythemia Vera, Essential Thrombocythemia, and Primary Myelofibrosis
153. Leukocytosis and Leukopenia
Normal Neutrophil Dynamics
Neutrophilia
Leukocytosis Due to Expansion of Other Cell Lines
Neutropenia
154. Approach to the Patient with Lymphadenopathy or Splenomegaly
Lymphadenopathy
Splenomegaly
155. Histiocytoses
L Group
C Group
R Group
M Group
H Group, Including Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
156. Eosinophilic Syndromes
157. Approach to the Patient with Bleeding or Thrombosis
Mechanisms of Hemostasis and Thrombosis
Evaluation of the Patient with a Possible Bleeding Disorder
Evaluation of the Asymptomatic Patient with Abnormal Coagulation Tests
Evaluation of the Preoperative Patient
Evaluation of the Patient with a Possible Hypercoagulable State
158. Thrombocytopenia
Specific Causes of Thrombocytopenia
159. Von Willebrand Disease and Hemorrhagic Abnormalities of Platelet and Vascular Function
Von Willebrand Disease
Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome
Qualitative Platelet Disorders
Hereditary Vascular Hemorrhagic Disorders
Acquired Vascular Hemorrhagic Disorders
160. Coagulation Factor Deficiencies
Coagulation Deficiencies
161. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Bleeding In Liver Failure
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Liver Failure
Vitamin K Deficiency
162. Transfusion Medicine
Blood Components
Pretransfusion Testing
Blood Safety
Indications for Blood Transfusion (Table 162-4)
Indications for Component Modification
Specific Clinical Settings
Patient Blood Management
163. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Syngeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Indications for Transplantation
Complications After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Future Directions

Section XVI. Oncology
XVI. ONCOLOGY
164. Approach to the Patient with Cancer
Introduction to the Cancer Patient
Endocrine Manifestations of Cancer
Paraneoplastic Syndromes
Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin
Survivorship and Follow-Up
165. Epidemiology of Cancer
Cancer Burden and Trends
Cancer Risk Factors
Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology
Cancer Control: Prevention and Treatment
166. Cancer Biology and Genetics
Introduction
Cancer Is a Disease of Cumulative DNA Alterations
Cancer Genetics and Targeted Therapies
Cancer Genetics for Diagnostics
167. Myelodysplastic Syndromes
168. The Acute Leukemias
169. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Other Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemias
170. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia and Atypical Chronic Myeloproliferative Diseases
171. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Specific Types of Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Special Clinical Situations
Diseases Sometimes Confused with Lymphoma
172. Hodgkin Lymphoma
173. Plasma Cell Disorders
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance
Biclonal Gammopathies
Multiple Myeloma
Variant Forms of Multiple Myeloma
Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (Primary Macroglobulinemia)
Hyperviscosity Syndrome
Heavy Chain Diseases
Cryoglobulinemia
174. Amyloidosis
Systemic Amyloidosis
Systemic Light Chain Amyloidosis
Other Systemic Amyloidoses
Localized Amyloidosis
175. Tumors of the Central Nervous System
Brain Tumors
Spinal Tumors
176. Head and Neck Cancer
177. Lung Cancer and Other Pulmonary Neoplasms
Bronchogenic Lung Cancer
Other Pulmonary Neoplasms
178. Neoplasms of the Esophagus and Stomach
Neoplasms of the Esophagus
Neoplasms of the Stomach
179. Neoplasms of the Small and Large Intestine
Neoplasms of the Small Intestine
Neoplasms of the Large Intestine
180. Pancreatic Cancer
181. Liver and Biliary Tract Tumors
182. Tumors of the Kidney, Bladder, Ureters, and Renal Pelvis
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Bladder Cancer
Cancers of the Renal Pelvis and Ureters
183. Breast Cancer and Benign Breast Disorders
Breast Cancer
Benign Breast Lesions
184. Gynecologic Cancers
Cervical Cancer
Endometrial Cancer
Ovarian and Fallopian Tube Cancer
Other Gynecologic Cancers
Approach to Survivors of Gynecologic Cancers
Uterine Fibroids
185. Testicular Cancer
186. Prostate Cancer
187. Malignant Bone Tumors, Sarcomas, and Other Soft Tissue Neoplasms
Bone Tumors
Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
Treatment
Desmoid Tumors/Aggressive Fibromatosis
Treatment
188. Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers
Melanoma
Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer

Volume II

Section XVII. Metabolic Diseases
XVII. METABOLIC DISEASES
189. Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Overview
Selected Errors of Metabolism
190. Disorders of Lipid Metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
Clinical Disorders of Lipid Metabolism
Prevention of ASCVD
Hypertriglyceridemia
191. Glycogen Storage Diseases
192. Lysosomal Storage Diseases
Gaucher Disease
Fabry Disease
Other Lysosomal Disorders Seen in Adults
193. Homocystinuria and Hyperhomocysteinemia
194. The Porphyrias
195. Wilson Disease
196. Iron Overload (Hemochromatosis)

Section XVIII. Nutritional Diseases
XVIII. NUTRITIONAL DISEASES
197. Severe Malnutrition
198. Malnutrition: Assessment and Support
199. Vitamins, Trace Minerals, and Other Micronutrients
Micronutrients in Nutritional Science
Types and Function of Micronutrients
Conditions that Increase Required Dietary Intake
Pathophysiologic and Pharmacologic Factors
Controversies Regarding Marginal Micronutrient Deficiencies
200. Eating Disorders
201. Obesity

Section XIX. Endocrine Diseases
XIX. ENDOCRINE DISEASES
202. Approach to the Patient with Endocrine Disease
Common Symptoms of Endocrinologic Disease
Physical Examination
Laboratory Evaluation
Genetic Evaluation
Evaluation of the Response of an Endocrine Disease to Treatment
203. Principles of Endocrinology
Regulation of Hormone Synthesis and Secretion
Hormone Transport and Metabolism
Mechanism of Hormone Action
Mechanisms of Endocrine Disease
204. Neuroendocrinology and the Neuroendocrine System
Neuroendocrine Regulation
Neuroendocrine Disease
205. Anterior Pituitary
Hypopituitarism
Pituitary Tumors
Growth Hormone
Prolactin
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Gonadotropins (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone)
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas
Pituitary Carcinomas
206. Posterior Pituitary
Anatomy and Hormone Synthesis
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion
Diabetes Insipidus
207. Thyroid
Overview of Thyroid Disease
Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
208. Adrenal Cortex
Normal Anatomy and Function
Disorders of Adrenal Function
209. Adrenal Medulla, Catecholamines, and Pheochromocytoma
Adrenal Medulla and Catecholamines
Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
Metastatic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
Pheochromocytoma in Pregnancy
210. Diabetes Mellitus
Overview
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
Gestational Diabetes
Acute Issues for Individuals With Diabetes
Chronic Microvascular Complications of Diabetes
Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease
211. Hypoglycemia
212. Polyglandular Disorders
Neoplastic Syndromes
Autoimmune Syndromes
213. Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Specific Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Carcinoid Syndrome
Principles for Controlling Growth of Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
214. Sexual Development
Differences of Sexual Development
Maternal Conditions Affecting the Fetus
Hormone Insensitivity Syndromes and Other Hormone Deficiencies
Other Genetic Conditions
Management of Individuals with Differences of Sexual Development: Gender Role and Identity
215. Transgender Medicine
216. The Testis and Male Hypogonadism, Infertility, and Sexual Dysfunction
Male Reproductive Physiology
Male Hypogonadism
Male Infertility
Sexual Dysfunction
217. Ovaries and Pubertal Development
Aberrations in Pubertal Development
218. Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
The Normal Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Symptoms
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Amenorrhea
Chronic Anovulation
Infertility
Sexual Function and Dysfunction
Interrupted Pregnancy

Section XX. Women's Health
XX. WOMEN’S HEALTH
219. Approach to Women’s Health
Lifespan Groups
Health Disparities Among Women
Common Causes of Mortality in Women
Common Causes of Morbidity in Women
Reproductive Health Issues
220. Contraception
Contraceptive Use
Types of Contraceptives
221. Medical Issues in Pregnancy
General Principles
Medical Disorders of Pregnancy
Infectious Disease
222. Menopause
223. Intimate Partner Violence

Section XXI. Diseases of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
XXI. DISEASES OF BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM
224. Approach to the Patient with Metabolic Bone Disease
225. Osteoporosis
226. Osteomalacia and Rickets
227. The Parathyroid Glands, Hypercalcemia, and Hypocalcemia
Calcium Metabolism
Hypercalcemia
Hypocalcemia
228. Paget Disease of Bone
229. Osteonecrosis, Osteosclerosis/Hyperostosis, and Other Disorders of Bone
Osteonecrosis
Osteosclerosis/Hyperostosis
Other Disorders of Bone

Section XXII. Diseases of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
XXII. DISEASES OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
230. Approach to the Patient with Allergic or Immunologic Disease
Allergic Disease
Inborn Errors of Immunity
231. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
An Approach to Evaluation of the Immune System
Severe T- and B-Cell Combined Defects
Less Severe T- and B-Cell Combined Defects
Combined Defects with Syndromic Features
Defects of Immune Globulin and Antibody Production
Complement Disorders
C1 Inhibitor Deficiency
Phagocytic Defects
Immune Dysregulation Syndromes
Diseases of Intrinsic and Inate Immunity
Autoinflammatory Disorders
Bone Marrow Failure Defects
232. Urticaria and Angioedema
Histamine-Induced Acute and Chronic Urticaria
Bradykinin-Mediated Hereditary Angioedema and Related Diseases
233. Anaphylaxis
234. Drug Allergy
235. Mastocytosis

Section XXIII. Rheumatic Diseases
XXIII. RHEUMATIC DISEASES
236. Approach to the Patient with Rheumatic Disease
237. Laboratory Testing in the Rheumatic Diseases
Markers of Inflammation
Laboratory Evaluation of Arthritis and Related Diseases
Laboratory Evaluation of Systemic Inflammatory Disease
238. Imaging Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases
Radiographic Evaluation
Computed Tomography
Ultrasonography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Scintigraphy
239. Inherited Diseases of Connective Tissue
Mucopolysaccharidoses
Marfan Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Syndromes
Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum
240. The Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases
Interleukin-1–Related Periodic Fever Syndromes
The Interferonopathies: Type I Interferon–Associated Autoinflammatory Diseases
Autoinflammatory Diseases Associated With Activation of NF-κB
Other Inherited Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases
Somatic Mutation And Late-Onset Autoinflammatory Disease
241. Osteoarthritis
242. Bursitis, Tendinopathy, Other Periarticular Disorders, and Sports Medicine
Sports Medicine Injuries
Disorders of the Shoulder Region
Disorders of the Elbow Region
Disorders of the Wrist and Hand
Disorders of the Hip Region
Disorders of the Knee Region
Disorders of the Ankle and Foot Region
243. Rheumatoid Arthritis
244. Spondyloarthritis
Common Features of Spondyloarthritis
Clinical Subsets of the Spondyloarthropathies
245. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
246. Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
Systemic Sclerosis
Other Sclerotic Diseases
247. Sjögren Syndrome
248. Inflammatory Myopathies
249. The Systemic Vasculitides
Specific Vasculitides
250. Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica
251. Infections of Bursae, Joints, and Bones
Infection of Bursae
Infection of Joints
Osteomyelitis
252. Crystal Deposition Diseases
Gout and Hyperuricemia
Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Crystal Deposition Disease
Apatite (Basic Calcium Phosphate)-Associated Arthropathy
253. Fibromyalgia
254. Systemic Diseases in Which Arthritis Is a Feature
Autoimmune Hepatitis
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Cirrhosis)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Whipple Disease
Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy (Celiac Disease)
Pancreatitis-Arthritis Syndrome
Hemophilia
Hemoglobinopathies
Hypogammaglobulinemia
Amyloidosis
Diabetes Mellitus
Thyroid Disorders
Parathyroid Disorders
Acromegaly
Hyperlipoproteinemia
Paget Disease
Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy
Leukemia and Lymphoma
Carcinomatous Polyarthritis
Arthritis Associated With Treatments for Malignant Diseases
Palmar Fasciitis and Arthritis Syndrome
Hemochromatosis
Multicentric Reticulohistiocytosis
Sarcoidosis
Immunoglobulin G4–Related Disease
Alkaptonuria (Ochronosis)
Fabry Disease
Relapsing Polychondritis
Cystic Fibrosis
Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor: Diffuse Type
255. Surgical Treatment of Joint Diseases
Deciding Upon Surgery
Anesthesia in the Orthopedic Patient
Orthopedic Procedures
Surgical Complications
Perioperative Arthritis Medication

Section XXIV. Infectious Diseases
XXIV. INFECTIOUS DISEASES
256. Introduction to Microbial Disease: Pathophysiology and Diagnostics
Emerging Infections
Genomics
Genetic Susceptibility and Response to Infection
Innate Immunity
Antimicrobial Resistance
The Role of Infectious Agents in Chronic Diseases
257. The Human Microbiome
Structure and Function Relationships of the Microbiome
Studying the Microbiome
Establishment of the Microbiome
Alteration of the Microbiome
Disease Associations
Therapies Targeting the Microbiome
Conclusions
258. Principles of Anti-Infective Therapy
Selecting Antimicrobial Therapy
Considerations of Antimicrobial Administration
Administrative Aspects of Antimicrobial Therapy
259. Approach to Fever or Suspected Infection in the Normal Host
Overview of Fever
Specific Fever Syndromes
260. Approach to Fever and Suspected Infection in the Immunocompromised Host
General Concepts
Approach to the Patient
Fever in the Compromised Host
261. Prevention and Control of Health Care–Associated Infections
The Burden of Health Care–Associated Infections
262. Approach to the Patient with Suspected Enteric Infection
263. Approach to the Patient with Urinary Tract Infection
264. Approach to the Patient with a Sexually Transmitted Infection
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually Transmitted Infection Syndromes
Prevention
265. Approach to the Patient Before and After Travel
Immunization
Malaria Chemoprophylaxis
Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika
Traveler’s Diarrhea
SARS-COV-2
Preventive Behaviors
Noninfectious Travel Problems
Post-Travel Care
266. Antibacterial Chemotherapy
Choice of Antibiotic, Dose, and administration Schedule
Culture and Gram Stain
Susceptibility
Determining the “Correct” Drug Dose
Resistance
Mechanism of Action
Effects of Pharmacokinetic Changes
Drug Classes and Their Properties
Toxicities
Duration of Therapy
Failure of Antimicrobial Therapy
267. Staphylococcal Infections
Staphylococcus aureus
Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci
268. Streptococcus Pneumoniae Pulmonary Infections
269. Nonpneumococcal Streptococcal Infections and Rheumatic Fever
Classification and Identification of Streptococci
Streptococcus Pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus) Infections
Streptococcus Agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus)
Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies Equisimilis (Group C and Group G Streptococcus)
Viridans Group Streptococci (Streptococcus anginosus Group/Streptococcus milleri Group)
Zoonotic Streptococcus
270. Enterococcal Infections
271. Clostridial and Clostridioides Infections
Diarrheal Syndromes
Necrotizing Clostridial Tissue Infection
Neurotoxic Clostridial Infections
272. Gram-Positive Rod Infections
Infections Caused by Bacillus Anthracis and Other Bacillus Species
Diphtheria and Other Infections Caused by Corynebacteria
Erysipeloid and Other Erysipelothrix Infections
Listeriosis
273. Diseases Caused by Non–Spore-Forming Anaerobic Bacteria
274. Neisseria Meningitidis Infections
275. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections
Specific Clinical Syndromes
276. Chancroid
277. Haemophilus and Moraxella Infections
Haemophilus Influenzae
Other Haemophilus Species
Moraxella Infections
278. Cholera and Other Vibrio Infections
Cholera
Other Vibrio Infections
279. Campylobacter Infections
Other Campylobacter Species
280. Escherichia Coli Enteric Infections
281. Enterobacterales: Non-Enteric Infections and Multidrug Resistance
282. Pseudomonas and Burkholderia Infections
Pseudomonas Infection
Burkholderia Infections
283. Diseases Caused by Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas Species
Acinetobacter Spp
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
284. Salmonella Infections (Including Enteric Fever)
285. Shigellosis
286. Brucellosis
287. Tularemia and Other Francisella Infections
288. Plague and Other Yersinia Infections
Plague
Yersiniosis
289. Whooping Cough and Other Bordetella Infections
290. Legionella Infections
291. Bartonella Infections
Intraerythrocytic Bacteremia: Oroya Fever and Trench Fever
Cat-Scratch Disease
Bacteremia and Endocarditis
Vasculoproliferative Disease: Bacillary Angiomatosis, Peliosis Hepatis, and Verruga Peruana
292. Granuloma Inguinale (Donovanosis)
293. Mycoplasma Infections
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Other Mycoplasma Species
294. Diseases Caused by Chlamydiae
Chlamydial Diseases
295. Syphilis and Nonsyphilitic Treponematoses
Syphilis
Nonsyphilitic Treponematoses
296. Lyme Disease
297. Relapsing Fever and Other Borrelia Infections
298. Leptospirosis
299. Tuberculosis
300. The Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
301. Leprosy (Hansen Disease)
302. Rickettsial Infections
Rickettsioses (Diseases Caused by Rickettsia Species and Orientia Tsutsugamushi)
Ehrlichioses and Anaplasmoses
Q Fever
303. Zoonoses
304. Actinomycosis
305. Whipple Disease
306. Nocardiosis
307. Systemic Antifungal Agents
Azole Antifungal Agents
Amphotericin Preparations
Echinocandin Antifungal Agents
Flucytosine
Ibrexafungerp
Other Agents
308. Endemic Mycoses
Blastomycosis
Histoplasmosis
Coccidioidomycosis
Sporotrichosis
Paracoccidioidomycosis
309. Cryptococcosis
310. Candidiasis
311. Aspergillosis
312. Mucormycosis
313. Pneumocystis Pneumonia
314. Mycetoma and Dematiaceous Fungal Infections
315. Antiparasitic Therapy
Protozoal Diseases
Helminthic Diseases
316. Malaria
317. African Sleeping Sickness
318. Chagas Disease
319. Leishmaniasis
Visceral Leishmaniasis
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
320. Toxoplasmosis
321. Cryptosporidiosis
322. Giardiasis
323. Amebiasis
Free-Living Amebae
324. Babesiosis and Other Protozoan Diseases
Babesiosis
Enteric Protozoa
325. Cestodes
Intestinal Tapeworm Infections
Tissue Cestode (Cyst) Infection
326. Trematode Infections
Schistosomiasis
Liver, Intestinal, and Lung Flukes
327. Nematode Infections
Intestinal Nematode Infections
Tissue Nematode Infections
328. Antiviral Therapy (Non-HIV)
Antivirals for Hepatitis B Virus Infections
Antivirals for Hepatitis C Virus Infections
Antivirals for Herpesvirus Infections
Antivirals for Influenza Virus Infections
Antivirals for Coronavirus Infections
Other Antivirals
329. The Common Cold
330. Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Human Metapneumovirus
331. Parainfluenza Viral Disease
332. Influenza
333. Adenovirus Diseases
334. Pre-2019 Coronaviruses
Seasonal Coronavirus
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
335. COVID-19: Virology and Pathology
SARS-CoV-2: The Virus and the Genome
Origin of SARS-CoV-2
SARS-CoV-2 Infection of Cells
COVID-19
The Immune Response
Variants of Concern
336. COVID-19: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, Community Prevention, and Prognosis
337. COVID-19 Treatment and Vaccination
Treatment of Infected Persons
Prevention
338. Measles
339. Rubella (German Measles)
340. Mumps
341. Polyomaviruses
Human Polyomavirus
BK Polyomavirus
JC Polyomavirus
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus
Other Cutaneous Human Polyomavirus–Associated Diseases
342. Parvovirus
343. Smallpox, Monkeypox, and Other Poxvirus Infections
344. Papillomavirus
345. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
346. Varicella-Zoster Virus (Chickenpox, Shingles)
347. Cytomegalovirus
348. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection
Acute Infection
Other Clinical Syndromes
349. Enteroviruses
Specific Clinical Syndromes
350. Rotaviruses, Noroviruses, and Other Gastrointestinal Viruses
351. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
352. Arboviruses Causing Fever, Rash, and Neurologic Syndromes
Common Features of Arboviruses
Fever and Myalgia Syndrome
Meningitis and Encephalitis Syndrome

Section XXV. Retroviruses
XXV. RETROVIRUSES
353. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Global Statistics
Global Impact and Response
Regional Epidemics and Responses
354. Pathobiology of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses
Replication Cycle
Physiology of HIV Infection
355. Acute Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of HIV
356. Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Modes of Transmission and Prevention
Prevention Interventions for Infected Individuals
Prevention in Development
357. Antiretroviral Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Available Drugs
When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy
What to Start
What to Monitor
When to Change Antiretroviral Therapy
Side Effects and Toxicity
Special Populations
Cure
358. Microbial Complications of HIV/AIDS
Microbial Complications
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS)
359. Systemic Manifestations of HIV/AIDS
Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of HIV
Renal Manifestations
Hematology and Oncology
Cardiovascular Manifestations of HIV
Endocrine Manifestations of HIV
Pulmonary Manifestations
Gastrointestinal Manifestations of HIV
Dermatologic Manifestations of HIV
Musculoskeletal Manifestations of HIV
360. Retroviruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
HTLV-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis
Other HTLV-Associated Conditions

Section XXVI. Behavioral Medicine
XXVI. BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
361. Delirium and Changes in Mental Status
Evaluation of Change in Mental Status
Delirium
362. Psychiatric Disorders in Medical Practice
Overview
Major Depressive Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Other Depressive and Bipolar Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Acute Stress Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic Disorders
Eating Disorders
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
Personality Disorders
Suicide and Evaluation of Suicidality
When to Refer a Patient for Psychiatric Evaluation
363. Nicotine and Tobacco
364. Alcohol Use Disorders
365. Drug Use Disorders
Major Drugs

Section XXVII. Neurology
XXVII. NEUROLOGY
366. Approach to the Patient with Neurologic Disease
Acute Neurologic Disorders Requiring Immediate Diagnosis and Treatment
Neurologic Examination
Common Complaints of Possible Neurologic Origin
Neurologic Diagnostic Procedures
367. Headaches and Other Head Pain
Migraine Headache
Tension-Type Headache
Cluster Headache and Other Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias
Chronic Daily Headache
Secondary Causes of Headaches
368. Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury
Acute Brain and Spinal Injury
Post-traumatic Hematomas
369. Mechanical and Other Lesions of the Spine, Nerve Roots, and Spinal Cord
Disorders of the Spine
Cervical Spinal Stenosis and Spondylotic Myelopathy
Disorders of the Nerve Roots
Disorders of the Spinal Cord
370. Regional Cerebral Dysfunction: Higher Mental Functions
Memory Function and Amnesic Disorders
Language Function and Aphasic Disorders
Cortical Disorders of Visual Function and Hemispatial Neglect
Executive Cognitive Dysfunction and the Control of Interpersonal Behavior
371. Cognitive Impairment and Dementia
The Spectrum of Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia
Management of Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia
Alzheimer Disease
Cognitive Impairment Due to Cerebrovascular Disease
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration
Creutzfeldt-Jakob and Other Classic Prion Diseases
Rapidly Progressive Dementia
Family Testing
372. The Epilepsies
373. Coma, Disorders of Consciousness, and Brain Death
Coma
Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome
Minimally conscious state
The Locked-in Syndrome
Brain Death
374. Sleep Disorders
Hypersomnia
Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders
375. Approach to Cerebrovascular Diseases
Cerebral Ischemia
Cerebral Hemorrhage
Cerebral Edema
376. Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease
Unusual Causes of Stroke
377. Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Disease
Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Vascular Malformations
378. Parkinsonism
Parkinson Disease
Other Causes of Parkinsonism
379. Other Movement Disorders
Tremor
Chorea
Dystonia
Tics
Myoclonus
Hyperexplexia
Other Movement Disorders
380. Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Conditions
Multiple Sclerosis
Other Diseases of Myelin
Chronic Autoimmune Syndromes
381. Meningitis: Bacterial, Viral, and Other
Bacterial Meningitis
Viral Meningitis
Other Meningitides
382. Brain Abscess and Parameningeal Infections
Brain Abscess
Spinal Epidural Abscess
Subdural Empyema
Venous Sinus Thrombosis Secondary to Infection
Neurologic Complications of Infectious Endocarditis
Virally Mediated Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
383. Encephalitis
Viral Encephalitis
384. Nutritional and Alcohol-Related Neurologic Disorders
Deficiency of Water-Soluble Vitamins
Deficiency of Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Deficiency of Miscellaneous Elements and Nutrients
Alcohol-Related Disorders
Osmotic Demyelination
385. Developmental and Neurocutaneous Disorders
Neural Tube Defects
Brain Malformations
Cerebral Palsy
Cognitive Disorders
Neurocutaneous Disorders
386. Autonomic Disorders
Systemic Autonomic Disorders
Specific Autonomic Disorders
Regional Sympathetic Dysfunction
387. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Spinal Muscular Atrophies
Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy/Kennedy Disease
388. Peripheral Neuropathies
Approach to Peripheral Neuropathy
Inherited Neuropathies
Inflammatory and Immunologic Neuropathies
Vasculitic Neuropathies
Neuropathies Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathies and Multiple Myeloma
Paraneoplastic Neuropathies
The Diabetic Neuropathies
Infectious Neuropathies
Toxic and Deficiency Syndromes
Critical Illness Neuropathy
Neuralgic Amyotrophy (Idiopathic Brachial Plexitis)
Compressive Mononeuropathies
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Bell Palsy
Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
389. Muscle Diseases
Specific Muscle Diseases
Congenital Muscular Dystrophies
Inflammatory Muscle Diseases
390. Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission
Myasthenia Gravis
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes
Neuromyotonia
Botulism
Other Neurotoxins

Section XXVIII. Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases
XXVIII. EYE, EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DISEASES
391. Diseases of the Visual System
Common Clinical Conditions
Inflammatory Eye Disorders
Infectious Eye Disorders
Structural and Age-Related Disorders
Systemic Diseases with Ocular Symptoms During Adulthood
Vascular Abnormalities of the Eye
Idiopathic Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders
Genetically Determined Diseases That May Become Symptomatic During Adulthood
Common Pediatric or Adolescent Diseases That May Persist into Adulthood
Tumors of the Eye
Ocular Effects of Systemic Medications
392. Neuro-Ophthalmology
Vision
Pupillary Control
Oculomotor Control
393. Diseases of the Mouth and Salivary Glands
Oral Mucosal Diseases
Oral Soft Tissue Tumors
Salivary Gland Diseases
Periodontal Disease
Acute Dental Infections
394. Approach to the Patient with Nose, Sinus, and Ear Disorders
Nasal and Sinus Complaints
Ear Pain
395. Smell and Taste
396. Hearing and Equilibrium
Disorders of the Auditory System
Equilibrium–Vestibular System
397. Throat Disorders
Anatomy of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract
Infectious Diseases of the Upper Aerodigestive System
Noninfectious Pharyngitis

Section XXIX. Medical Consultation
XXIX. MEDICAL CONSULTATION
398. Principles of Medical Consultation
Approach to Medical Consultation
Consultative Settings
Setting-Specific Consultative Issues
Strategies for Effective Consultation
Special Consultative Situations
Responsibilities of the Consultant
Impact of Consultations on Patient Outcome
399. Preoperative Evaluation
General Principles
General Preoperative Evaluation
Assessing Risk
Approach to Managing Medications
Communicating with the Surgeon and Anesthesiologist
400. Overview of Anesthesia
Preoperative Assessment
Medication Reactions
Intraoperative Management
General Versus Regional Anesthesia
Nausea and Vomiting
401. Postoperative Care and Complications
Postoperative Care
Complications
402. Medical Care of Patients with Psychiatric Diseases
Population Health for Persons with Severe Mental Illnesses
Specific Health Challenges for Patients with Severe Mental Illness
Providing Care in Different Settings
Medical Complications of Psychiatric Treatments
Approach to Common Symptoms and Findings
Giving Recommendations
Ongoing Ambulatory Medical Care of the Psychiatric Patient

Section XXX. Skin Diseases
XXX. SKIN DISEASES
403. Approach to Skin Diseases
Structure and Function of the Skin
Approach to a Skin Problem
Approach to Diagnosis
Life-Threatening Emergencies
Diagnostic Tests
Pruritus
404. Principles of Therapy of Skin Diseases
Principles of Topical Therapy
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Antimicrobial Agents
Antipruritic or Anesthetic Agents
Agents that Improve Surface Functions (Lubrication, Scale)
Immune Therapies
Treatment for Skin Cancers (See Chapter 188)
405. Eczemas, Photodermatoses, Papulosquamous (Including Fungal) Diseases, and Figurate Erythemas
Eczema
Photodermatoses
Papulosquamous (Including Fungal) Diseases
Figurate Erythemas
406. Macular, Papular, Purpuric, Vesiculobullous, and Pustular Diseases
Macular and Papular Exanthems
Vesiculobullous Diseases
Pustular Eruptions
Hidradenitis Suppuritiva
Sweet Syndrome
407. Urticaria, Drug Hypersensitivity Rashes, Nodules and Tumors, and Atrophic Diseases
Urticaria
Drug Rashes
Benign Papules, Nodules, and Tumors
Atrophic and Sclerotic Lesions
408. Infections, Pigmentation Disorders, Regional Dermatology, and Distinctive Lesions in Black Skin
Infections, Including Cellulitis
Disorders of Hypopigmentation and Hyperpigmentation
Distinctive Lesions in Black Skin
Regional Dermatoses
409. Diseases of Hair and Nails
Hair Disorders
Telogen Effluvium
Diffuse Alopecia
Patchy Alopecia
Hair Disorders in Children
Racial Differences
Excessive Hair Growth
Nail Disorders
Appendix. Reference Intervals and Laboratory Values
INDEX
IBC

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